Korean J Anesthesiol.  2005 May;48(5):540-544. 10.4097/kjae.2005.48.5.540.

In Vitro Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Detected a Differential Neurochemical Response in Rabbit Brain Administered Thiopental or Ketamine

Affiliations
  • 1Departments of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Korea. bikim@cu.ac.kr
  • 2Departments of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Korea.
  • 3Departments of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cellular target sites and the neurochemical compounds responsible for anesthetic action remain unclear. This study was designed to detect regional changes in neurochemical compounds by NMR spectroscopy of extracted rabbit brain tissue after anesthetizing with thiopental or ketamine.
METHODS
Nine healthy white New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were studied. A marginal ear vein was punctured for continuous intravenous infusion. Controlled breathing was maintained using a Jackson-Ree circuit after intubation during thiopental (n = 3) or ketamine (n = 3) anesthesia. After maintaining anesthesia for 30 minutes, brains were extracted and placed in liquid nitrogen. Rabbits in the control group (n = 3) were sacrificed using KCl and processed in the same manner. Extracted brain tissues were divided into frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, pons, midbrain, basal ganglia and spinal cord. The 1H-NMR spectra of extracted regional brain tissues were obtained, and neurochemical compounds such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), and creatine (Cr) were compared with those of normal control tissues.
RESULTS
In the thiopental group, the GABA/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios of brain regions were not significantly different from those of the control group. The Cho/Cr ratios of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and basal ganglia were significantly higher than those of the control group. In the ketamine group, the GABA/Cr ratio of the midbrain was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, Cho/Cr ratios of the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and midbrain were significantly higher than those of the control group, though the NAA/Cr ratio was similar to that of the control.
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that the anesthetic actions of thiopental, such as, its sedative and hypnotic effects are due to increased GABA activity. Inhibition of acetylcholine induced neurotransmission was observed particularly in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and basal ganglia in thiopental anesthesia and in the parietal lobe, temporal lobe and midbrain in ketamine anesthesia. Neurotoxicity was not observed for either drug in anesthetized brain tissue.

Keyword

brain; ketamine; neurochemical compound; NMR; rabbit; thiopental

MeSH Terms

Acetylcholine
Anesthesia
Basal Ganglia
Brain*
Creatine
Ear
Frontal Lobe
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Infusions, Intravenous
Intubation
Ketamine*
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
Mesencephalon
Nitrogen
Occipital Lobe
Parietal Lobe
Pons
Protons*
Rabbits
Respiration
Spinal Cord
Synaptic Transmission
Temporal Lobe
Thiopental*
Veins
Acetylcholine
Creatine
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Ketamine
Nitrogen
Protons
Thiopental
gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
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