Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2019 Feb;16(1):69-80. 10.1007/s13770-018-0164-4.

Induction of Chondrogenic Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured on Human Demineralized Bone Matrix Scaffold under Hydrostatic Pressure

  • 1Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Department, Stem Cell Division, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Shahrak-e Pajoohesh, km 15, Tehran - Karaj Highway, Tehran 1497716316, Iran. maryam@nigeb.ac.ir sh_bonakdar@pasteur.ac.ir
  • 2Iranian Tissue Bank, Imam khomani Hospital, University of Medical Sciences, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran 1419733141, Iran.
  • 3National Cell Bank Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran (IPI), No. 69, Pasteur Ave, Tehran 1316943551, Iran. maryam@nigeb.ac.ir sh_bonakdar@pasteur.ac.ir


Articular cartilage damage is still a troublesome problem. Hence, several researches have been performed for cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chondrogenicity of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds under cyclic hydrostatic pressure (CHP) in vitro.
In this study, CHP was applied to human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) seeded on DBM scaffolds at a pressure of 5 MPa with a frequency of 0.5 Hz and 4 h per day for 1 week. Changes in chondrogenic and osteogenic gene expressions were analyzed by quantifying mRNA signal level of Sox9, collagen type I, collagen type II, aggrecan (ACAN), Osteocalcin, and Runx2. Histological analysis was carried out by hematoxylin and eosin, and Alcian blue staining. Moreover, DMMB and immunofluorescence staining were used for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II detection, respectively.
Real-time PCR demonstrated that applying CHP to hBMSCs in DBM scaffolds increased mRNA levels by 1.3-fold, 1.2-fold, and 1.7-fold (p < 0.005) for Sox9, Col2, and ACAN, respectively by day 21, whereas it decreased mRNA levels by 0.7-fold and 0.8-fold (p < 0.05) for Runx2 and osteocalcin, respectively. Additionally, in the presence of TGF-β1 growth factor (10 ng/ml), CHP further increased mRNA levels for the mentioned genes (Sox9, Col2, and ACAN) by 1.4-fold, 1.3-fold and 2.5-fold (p < 0.005), respectively. Furthermore, in histological assessment, it was observed that the extracellular matrix contained GAG and type II collagen in scaffolds under CHP and CHP with TGF-β1, respectively.
The osteo-inductive DBM scaffolds showed chondrogenic characteristics under hydrostatic pressure. Our study can be a fundamental study for the use of DBM in articular cartilage defects in vivo and lead to production of novel scaffolds with two different characteristics to regenerate both bone and cartilage simultaneously.


Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells; Chondrogenic differentiation; Hydrostatic pressure; Demineralized bone matrix scaffold

MeSH Terms

Alcian Blue
Bone Marrow
Bone Matrix*
Cartilage, Articular
Collagen Type I
Collagen Type II
Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
Extracellular Matrix
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Gene Expression
Hydrostatic Pressure*
In Vitro Techniques
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells*
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
RNA, Messenger
Alcian Blue
Collagen Type I
Collagen Type II
Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
RNA, Messenger
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