J Korean Assoc Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg.  2008 Mar;30(2):133-141.

A study on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived adult stem cell

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Korea University, Korea. es225@daum.net

Abstract

Stem cells have self-renewal capacity, long-term viability, and multilineage potential. Adult bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are progenitors of skeletal tissue components and can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myoblasts in vitro and undergo differentiation in vivo. However, the clinical use of BMSCs has presented problems, including pain, morbidity, and low cell number upon harvest. Recent studies have identified a putative stem cell population within the adipose tissue. Human adipose tissue contains pluripotent stem cells simillar to bone marrowderived stem cells that can differentiate toward the osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ATSCs) could be proposed as an alternative source of adult bone marrow stem cells, and could be obtained in large quantities, under local anesthesia, with minimal discomfort. Human adipose tissue obtained by liposuction was processed to obtain ATSCs. In this study, we compared the osteogenic differentiation of ATSCs in a specific osteogenic induction medium with that in a non-osteogenic medium. ATSCs were incubated in an osteogenic medium for 28 days to induce osteogenesis respectively. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by von Kossa and alkaline phosphatase staining. Expression of osteocyte specific bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, collagen type I and alkaline phosphatase, bone morphogenic protein 2, bone morphogenic protein 6 was confirmed by RT-PCR. ATSCs incubated in the osteogenic medium were stained positively for von Kossa and alkaline phosphatase staining. Expression of osteocyte specific genes was also detected. Since this cell population can be easily identified through fluorescence microscopy, it may be an ideal source of ATSCs for further experiments on stem cell biology and tissue engineering. The present results show that ADSCs have an ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. In the present study, we extend this approach to characterize adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

Keyword

Adipose tissue-derived stem cells; Stem cells; Adipose tissue

MeSH Terms

Adipocytes
Adipose Tissue
Adult
Adult Stem Cells
Alkaline Phosphatase
Anesthesia, Local
Biology
Bone Marrow
Cell Count
Chondrocytes
Collagen Type I
Durapatite
Humans
Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein
Lipectomy
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Microscopy, Fluorescence
Myoblasts
Osteoblasts
Osteocalcin
Osteocytes
Osteogenesis
Pluripotent Stem Cells
Stem Cells
Tissue Engineering
Alkaline Phosphatase
Collagen Type I
Durapatite
Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein
Osteocalcin
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