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Skeletal mineralization: mechanisms and diseases

Michigami

Skeletal mineralization is initiated in matrix vesicles (MVs), the small extracellular vesicles derived from osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Calcium and inorganic phosphate (Pi) taken up by MVs form hydroxyapatite crystals, which...
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Correlation of spontaneous adipocyte generation with osteogenic differentiation of porcine skin-derived stem cells

Bae HK, Jung BD, Lee S, Park CK, Yang BK, Cheong HT

The objective of this study was to examine effects of spontaneous adipocyte generation on osteogenic differentiation of porcine skin-derived stem cells (pSSCs). Correlation between osteogenic differentiation and adipocyte differentiation induced...
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Skeletal Fragility in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Starup-Linde J, Hygum K, Langdahl B

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk of fracture, which has been reported in several epidemiological studies. However, bone mineral density in T2D is increased and underestimates...
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Linkage of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Phosphate in Serum: Phosphate and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Reduction by Increasing Dose of Sevelamer

Ghorbanihaghjo A, Argani H, Golmohamadi Z, Rashtchizadeh N, Abbasi MM, Bargahi N, Vatankhah , Sanajou D

BACKGROUND: High serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels are well-recognized independent risk factors of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Sevelamer, as a phosphate...
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Predicting the Role of Osteal Macrophages and Osteocytes in Bone Tissue Network Using a Mathematical Modeling

Hwang SJ

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of osteal macrophages (osteomac) and osteocytes in bone remodeling using a mathematical model. We constructed the bone system with pre-osteoblasts,...
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Intracellular Remodeling and Accumulation of Aberrant Lysosomes in Differentiation of Tonsil-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Parathyroid-Like Cells

Jo YI, Kim G, Jin YM, Park YJ, Kim HS, Park YS

Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into a variety of cell lineages such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes is often accompanied up-regulation of autophagy. In our study, we demonstrated that...
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Isolation and Characterization of Human Chorionic Membranes Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Neural Differentiation

Miao Z, Sun H, Xue Y

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be obtained from a variety of human tissues. Placenta has become an attractive stem cell source for potential applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering....
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Long Term Exposure to Myrtucommulone-A Changes CD105 Expression and Differentiation Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Izgi K, Sonmez MF, Canatan H, Iskender B

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a heterogeneous group of multipotent stem cells that could be found in various somatic tissues. MSCs are defined by molecular and functional features including spindle-shape...
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Thermal-Induced Osteonecrosis of Adjacent Vertebra after Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy

Kim S, Lee SH, Kim ES, Eoh W

A 42-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaints of low back pain and intermittent right thigh pain. Twelve weeks before admission, the patient received intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET)...
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Derivation and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Osteoarthritis Patients

Gari M, Alsehli H, Gari A, Abbas M, Alkaff M, Abuzinadah M, Al-Sayes F, Gari M, Dallol A, Abuzenadah AM, Gauthaman

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease caused by the progressive reduction of the articular cartilage surface that leads to reduced joint function. Cartilage degeneration occurs through...
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TonEBP suppresses adipocyte differentiation via modulation of early signaling in 3T3-L1 cells

Kim SJ, Kim T, Choi HN, Cho EJ, Park JB, Jeon BH, Lee SD

TonEBP belongs to the Rel family of transcription factors and plays important roles in inflammation as well as kidney homeostasis. Recent studies suggest that TonEBP expression is also involved in...
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Smad4 controls bone homeostasis through regulation of osteoblast/osteocyte viability

Moon YJ, Yun CY, Choi H, Ka SO, Kim JR, Park BH, Cho ES

Regulation of osteoblast and osteocyte viability is essential for bone homeostasis. Smad4, a major transducer of bone morphogenetic protein and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways, regulates apoptosis in various cell...
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The Study of BD-MSC Therapy against Critical Limb Ischemia

Son M, Kang WC, Byun K

Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most severe peripheral artery disease and caused by thrombus formation in blood vessel. The current strategies for treating CLI does not protect limb amputation...
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New Bone Formation in Tuberculous-Infected Vertebral Body Defect after Administration of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Rabbit Model

Rahyussalim AJ, Kurniawati T, Siregar NC, Syahrurachman A, Dilogo IH, Iskandriati D, Fitri AD

STUDY DESIGN: Preliminary experimental study using a rabbit spondylitis model. PURPOSE: To observe the ossification in a micro-environment containing live Mycobacterium tuberculosis transplanted with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in rabbits. OVERVIEW...
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Updated Surgical Techniques and Expanded Indications of Free Vascularized Fibular Graft

Park JW

Free or pedicled vascularized fibular grafts (VFG) are useful for the reconstruction of large skeletal defects, particularly in cases of scarred or avascular beds, or in patients with combined bone...
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Increased Sclerostin Levels after Further Ablation of Remnant Estrogen by Aromatase Inhibitors

Kim W, Chung Y, Kim SH, Park S, Bae JH, Kim G, Lee SJ, Kim JE, Park BW, Lim SK, Rhee Y

BACKGROUND: Sclerostin is a secreted Wnt inhibitor produced almost exclusively by osteocytes, which inhibits bone formation. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs), which reduce the conversion of steroids to estrogen, are used to...
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Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha Directly Induces the Expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappaB Ligand in MLO-Y4 Osteocytes

Baek K, Park HJ, Baek JH

Osteocytes may function as mechanotransducers by regulating local osteoclastogenesis. Reduced availability of oxygen, i.e. hypoxia, could occur during disuse, bone development, and fracture. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)...
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Diagnostic Modalities for FGF23-Producing Tumors in Patients with Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia

Fukumoto S

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a hormone that is produced by osteocytes and regulates phosphate and vitamin D metabolism through binding to the Klotho-FGF receptor complex. Excessive actions of...
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Mouse Models for the Evaluation of Osteocyte Functions

Komori T

  • KMID: 2391953
  • J Bone Metab.
  • 2014 Feb;21(1):55-60.
Osteocytes establish an extensive intracellular and extracellular communication system via gap junction-coupled cell processes and canaliculi, through which cell processes pass throughout bone, and the communication system is extended to...
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Role of Osteocyte-derived Insulin-Like Growth Factor I in Developmental Growth, Modeling, Remodeling, and Regeneration of the Bone

Sheng MH, Lau KH, Baylink DJ

  • KMID: 2391952
  • J Bone Metab.
  • 2014 Feb;21(1):41-54.
The osteocyte has long been considered to be the primary mechanosensory cell in the bone. Recent evidence has emerged that the osteocyte is also a key regulator of various bone...
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