Int J Oral Biol.  2010 Jun;35(2):43-49.

Mechanisms Underlying Enterococcus faecalis-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Production in Macrophages

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Oral Microbiology, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University Dental School, Gwangju 500-757, Korea. ickang@jnu.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Conservative Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University Dental School, Gwangju 500-757, Korea.
  • 3Department of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju 506-701, Korea.

Abstract

Enterococcus faecalis, a gram-positive bacterium, has been implicated in endodontic infections, particularly in chronic apical periodontitis. Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), are involved in the pathogenesis of these apical lesions. E. faecalis has been reported to stimulate macrophages to produce TNF-alpha. The present study investigated the mechanisms involved in TNF-alpha production by a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 in response to exposure to E. faecalis. Both live and heat-killed E. faecalis induced high levels of gene expression and protein release of TNF-alpha. Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of endocytosis, prevented the mRNA up-regulation of TNF-alpha by E. faecalis. In addition, antioxidant treatment reduced TNF-alpha production to baseline levels. Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase also significantly attenuated E. faecalis-induced TNF-alpha expression by RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 in RAW 264.7 cells was also stimulated by E. faecalis. These results suggest that the phagocytic uptake of bacteria is necessary for the induction of TNF-alpha in E. faecalis-stimulated macrophages, and that the underlying intracellular signaling pathways involve reactive oxygen species, ERK, p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappaB, and AP-1.

Keyword

Enterococcus faecalis; tumor necrosis factor-alpha; macrophage

MeSH Terms

Bacteria
Cell Line
Cytochalasin D
Cytokines
Endocytosis
Enterococcus
Enterococcus faecalis
Gene Expression
Macrophages
NF-kappa B
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Periapical Periodontitis
Phosphotransferases
Reactive Oxygen Species
RNA, Messenger
Transcription Factor AP-1
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Up-Regulation
Cytochalasin D
Cytokines
NF-kappa B
Phosphotransferases
RNA, Messenger
Reactive Oxygen Species
Transcription Factor AP-1
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Full Text Links
  • IJOB
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
    DB Error: unknown error