Int Neurourol J.  2019 Feb;23(Suppl 1):S5-S10. 10.5213/inj.1938036.018.

Dysfunctional Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Synaptic Degeneration in Alzheimer Disease

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA. Tang.Jason@mayo.edu
  • 2Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.

Abstract

Synapses are sites of high energy demand which are dependent on high levels of mitochondrial derived adenosine triphosphate. Mitochondria within synaptic structures are key for maintenance of functional neurotransmission and this critical biological process is modulated by energy metabolism, mitochondrial distribution, mitochondrial trafficking, and cellular synaptic calcium flux. Synapse loss is presumed to be an early yet progressive pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), resulting in impaired cognitive function and memory loss which is particularly prevalent at later stages of disease. Supporting evidence from AD patients and animal models suggests that pathological mitochondrial dynamics indeed occurs early and is highly associated with synaptic lesions and degeneration in AD neurons. This review comprehensively highlights recent findings that describe how synaptic mitochondria pathology involves dysfunctional trafficking of this organelle, to maladaptive epigenetic contributions affecting mitochondrial function in AD. We further discuss how these negative, dynamic alterations impact synaptic function associated with AD. Finally, this review explores how antioxidant therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondria in AD can further clinical research and basic science investigations to advance our in-depth understanding of the pathogenesis of AD.

Keyword

Mitochondria; Synaptic plasticity; Alzheimer disease; Cognitive dysfunction

MeSH Terms

Adenosine Triphosphate
Alzheimer Disease*
Biological Processes
Calcium
Cognition
Energy Metabolism*
Epigenomics
Humans
Memory Disorders
Mitochondria
Mitochondrial Dynamics
Models, Animal
Neuronal Plasticity
Neurons
Organelles
Pathology
Synapses
Synaptic Transmission
Adenosine Triphosphate
Calcium
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