J Gastric Cancer.  2013 Dec;13(4):232-241.

Gastrokine 1 Expression in the Human Gastric Mucosa Is Closely Associated with the Degree of Gastritis and DNA Methylation

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pathology, The Catholic University of Korea, School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. wonsang@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Department of General Surgery, The Catholic University of Korea, School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Gastrokine 1 plays an important role in gastric mucosal defense. Additionally, the Gastrokine 1-miR-185-DNMT1 axis has been shown to suppress gastric carcinogenesis through regulation of epigenetic alteration. Here, we investigated the effects of Gastrokine 1 on DNA methylation and gastritis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Expression of Gastrokine 1, DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc proteins, and the presence of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein were determined in 55 non-neoplastic gastric mucosal tissue samples by western blot analysis. The CpG island methylation phenotype was also examined using six markers (p16, hMLH1, CDH1, MINT1, MINT2 and MINT31) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Histological gastritis was assessed according to the updated Sydney classification system.
RESULTS
Reduced Gastrokine 1 expression was found in 20 of the 55 (36.4%) gastric mucosal tissue samples and was closely associated with miR-185 expression. The Gastrokine 1 expression level was inversely correlated with that of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc, and closely associated with the degree of gastritis. The H. pylori CagA protein was detected in 26 of the 55 (47.3%) gastric mucosal tissues and was positively associated with the expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc. In addition, 30 (54.5%) and 23 (41.9%) of the gastric mucosal tissues could be classified as CpG island methylation phenotype-low and CpG island methylation phenotype-high, respectively. Reduced expression of Gastrokine 1 and miR-185, and increased expression of DNMT1, EZH2, and c-Myc were detected in the CpG island methylation phenotype-high gastric mucosa.
CONCLUSIONS
Gastrokine 1 has a crucial role in gastric inflammation and DNA methylation in gastric mucosa.

Keyword

Gastrokine 1; DNA methylation; microRNA-185; CagA protein; Gastric mucosa

MeSH Terms

Axis, Cervical Vertebra
Blotting, Western
Carcinogenesis
Classification
CpG Islands
DNA Methylation*
DNA*
Epigenomics
Gastric Mucosa*
Gastritis*
Helicobacter pylori
Humans*
Inflammation
Methylation
Mucous Membrane
Phenotype
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
DNA
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
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