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Rare PTH Gene Mutations Causing Parathyroid Disorders: A Review

Lee JH, Davaatseren M, Lee S

Since parathyroid hormone (PTH) was first isolated and its gene (PTH) was sequenced, only eight PTH mutations have been discovered. The C18R mutation in PTH, discovered in 1990, was the...
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Curcumin Attenuates Acrolein-induced COX-2 Expression and Prostaglandin Production in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

Lee SE, Park HR, Jeon S, Han D, Park YS

OBJECTIVE: Inflammation is crucial to limiting vascular disease. Previously we reported that acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, might play an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis via...
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Cyclosporin A aggravates hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells

Moon D, Kim J

Cyclosporin A (CsA) does not only exert a toxic effect on kidney parenchymal cells, but also protects them against necrotic cell death by inhibiting opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore....
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Identification of phospholipase C β downstream effect on transient receptor potential canonical 1/4, transient receptor potential canonical 1/5 channels

Ko J, Myeong J, Kwak M, Jeon JH, So I

Gα(q)-coupled receptor stimulation was implied in the activation process of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)1/4 and TRPC1/5 heterotetrameric channels. The inactivation occurs due to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P₂) depletion. When PI(4,5)P₂...
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Inhibition of ER Stress by 2-Aminopurine Treatment Modulates Cardiomyopathy in a Murine Chronic Chagas Disease Model

Ayyappan J, lizardo K, Wang S, Yurkow E, Nagajyothi JF

Trypanosoma cruzi infection results in debilitating cardiomyopathy, which is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions of Chagas disease (CD). The pathogenesis of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM)...
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Transient expression of hemagglutinin antigen from canine influenza virus H3N2 in Nicotiana benthamiana and Lactuca sativa

Maharjan P, Choe S

PURPOSE: Canine influenza virus (CIV), H3N2, carries potentiality for zoonotic transmission and genetic assortment which raises a concern on possible epidemics, and human threats in future. To manage possible threats,...
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Association between p53 Expression and Amount of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

Lee M, Park IA, Heo SH, Kim YA, Gong G, Lee HJ

BACKGROUND: Most triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a high histologic grade, are associated with high endoplasmic stress, and possess a high frequency of TP53 mutations. TP53 missense mutations lead to...
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Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induces MUC5AC and MUC5B Expression in Human Nasal Airway Epithelial Cells

Kim MH, Bae CH, Choi YS, Na HG, Song SY, Kim YD

OBJECTIVES: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to be associated with inflammatory airway diseases, and three major transmembrane receptors: double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase, inositol requiring enzyme 1, and...
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Emodin exerts protective effect against palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 cells

Thomas SS, Park S, Cha YS, Kim KA

PURPOSE: Protein overloading in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress, which exacerbates various disease conditions. Emodin, an anthraquinone compound, is known to have several health benefits. The...
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Myricetin Protects Against High Glucose-Induced β-Cell Apoptosis by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress via Inactivation of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5

Karunakaran U, Elumalai S, Moon JS, Jeon JH, Kim ND, Park KG, Won KC, Leem J, Lee IK

BACKGROUND: Chronic hyperglycemia has deleterious effects on pancreatic β-cell function and turnover. Recent studies support the view that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) plays a role in β-cell failure under hyperglycemic...
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Anti-inflammatory effect of Lycium barbarum on polarized human intestinal epithelial cells

Lee SR, Hwang HJ, Yoon JG, Bae EY, Goo KS, Cho SJ, Cho JA

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has rapidly escalated in Asia (including Korea) due to increasing westernized diet patterns subsequent to industrialization. Factors associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are demonstrated...
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Guanabenz Acetate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Related Cell Death in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

Kang HJ, Seol HS, Lee SE, Suh YA, Kim J, Jang SJ, Yu E

BACKGROUND: Development of chemotherapeutics for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been lagging. Screening of candidate therapeutic agents by using patient-derived preclinical models may facilitate drug discovery for...
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Involvement of Orai1 in tunicamycin-induced endothelial dysfunction

Yang H, Xue Y, Kuang S, Zhang M, Chen J, Liu L, Shan Z, Lin Q, Li X, Yang M, Zhou H, Rao F, Deng C

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is mediated by disturbance of Ca²⁺ homeostasis. The store-operated calcium (SOC) channel is the primary Ca²⁺ channel in non-excitable cells, but its participation in agent-induced ER...
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Metformin Ameliorates Lipotoxic β-Cell Dysfunction through a Concentration-Dependent Dual Mechanism of Action

Kim HI, Lee JS, Kwak BK, Hwang WM, Kim MJ, Kim YB, Chung SS, Park KS

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Although it is well known that metformin induces cellular energy depletion and a concomitant activation...
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Perivascular Stem Cells Suppress Inflammasome Activation during Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages

Kim J, Kim WJ, Ha KS, Han ET, Park WS, Yang SR, Hong SH

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perivascular stem cells (PVCs) have been identified as precursors of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that offer promising prospects for application in the development of cellular therapies. Although...
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Neutrophilic Granule Protein Is a Novel Murine LPS Antagonist

Hong J, Qu P, Wuest TR, Huang H, Huang C, Lin PC

Neutrophilic granule protein (NGP) was previously reported as a granular protein of neutrophils in mouse, but the function has not been known clearly. We found the presence of the possible...
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An integrated review on new targets in the treatment of neuropathic pain

Khangura R, Sharma J, Bali A, Singh N, Jaggi AS

Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic pain state caused by the dysfunction of somatosensory nervous system, and it affects the millions of people worldwide. At present, there are very few...
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Expression of Immunoproteasome Subunit LMP7 in Breast Cancer and Its Association with Immune-Related Markers

Lee M, Song IH, Heo SH, Kim YA, Park IA, Bang WS, Park HS, Gong G, Lee HJ

PURPOSE: In the presence of interferon, proteasome subunits are replaced by their inducible counterparts to form an immunoproteasome (IP) plays a key role in generation of antigenic peptides presented by...
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Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders

Muneer A, Shamsher Khan RM

The Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an indispensable sub-cellular component of the eukaryotic cell carries out essential functions, is critical to the survival of the organism. The chaperone proteins and the folding...
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Shikonin Exerts Cytotoxic Effects in Human Colon Cancers by Inducing Apoptotic Cell Death via the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria-Mediated Pathways

Han X, Kang KA, Piao MJ, Zhen AX, Hyun YJ, Kim HM, Ryu YS, Hyun JW

The apoptotic effects of shikonin (5,8-dihydroxy-2-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione) on the human colon cancer cell line SNU-407 were investigated in this study. Shikonin showed dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against SNU-407 cells, with an estimated...
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