Lab Anim Res.  2019 Oct;35(3):132-139. 10.1186/s42826-019-0018-9.

Lipopolysaccharide induces neuroglia activation and NF-κB activation in cerebral cortex of adult mice

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Research Institute of Life Science, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52828, South Korea. pokoh@gnu.ac.kr
  • 2Division of Life Science and Applied Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52828, South Korea.

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) acts as an endotoxin, releases inflammatory cytokines, and promotes an inflammatory response in various tissues. This study investigated whether LPS modulates neuroglia activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Adult male mice were divided into control animals and LPS-treated animals. The mice received LPS (250 µg/kg) or vehicle via an intraperitoneal injection for 5 days. We confirmed a reduction of body weight in LPS-treated animals and observed severe histopathological changes in the cerebral cortex. Moreover, we elucidated increases of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress levels in LPS-treated animals. LPS administration led to increases of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Iba-1 and GFAP are well accepted as markers of activated microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Moreover, LPS exposure induced increases of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Increases of these inflammatory mediators by LPS exposure indicate that LPS leads to inflammatory responses and tissue damage. These results demonstrated that LPS activates neuroglial cells and increases NF-κB-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex. Thus, these findings suggest that LPS induces neurotoxicity by increasing oxidative stress and activating neuroglia and inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex.

Keyword

Lipopolysaccharide; Neuroinflammation; Nuclear factor kappa B; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species

MeSH Terms

Adult*
Animals
Astrocytes
Body Weight
Cerebral Cortex*
Cytokines
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Humans
Injections, Intraperitoneal
Male
Mice*
Microglia
Necrosis
Neuroglia*
NF-kappa B
Oxidative Stress
Reactive Oxygen Species
Cytokines
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
NF-kappa B
Reactive Oxygen Species
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