Korean J Orthod.  2019 Sep;49(5):299-309. 10.4041/kjod.2019.49.5.299.

Effects of pre-applied orthodontic force on the regeneration of periodontal tissues in tooth replantation

Affiliations
  • 1Private Practice, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 2Department of Statistics, College of Natural Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 3Department of Oral Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 4Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.
  • 5Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea. jhcho@jnu.ac.kr
  • 6Dental 4D Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

Abstract


OBJECTIVE
This study aimed to investigate the effect of pre-applied orthodontic force on the regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues and the underlying mechanisms in tooth replantation.
METHODS
Orthodontic force (50 cN) was applied to the left maxillary first molars of 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32); the right maxillary first molars were left untreated to serve as the control group. After 7 days, the first molars on both sides were fully luxated and were immediately replanted in their original sockets. To verify the effects of the pre-applied orthodontic force, we assessed gene expression by using microarray analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cell proliferation by using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining, and morphological changes by using histological analysis.
RESULTS
Application of orthodontic force for 7 days led to the proliferation of PDL tissues, as verified on microarray analysis and PCNA staining. Histological analysis after replantation revealed less root resorption, a better arrangement of PDL fibers, and earlier regeneration of periodontal tissues in the experimental group than in the control group. For the key genes involved in periodontal tissue remodeling, including CXCL2, CCL4, CCL7, MMP3, PCNA, OPG, and RUNX2, quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that messenger RNA levels were higher at 1 or 2 weeks in the experimental group.
CONCLUSIONS
These results suggest that the application of orthodontic force prior to tooth replantation enhanced the proliferation and activities of PDL cells and may lead to higher success rates with fewer complications.

Keyword

Replantation; Orthodontic force; Periodontal ligament; Ankylosis

MeSH Terms

Animals
Ankylosis
Cell Proliferation
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Gene Expression
Humans
Male
Microarray Analysis
Molar
Periodontal Ligament
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
Rats
Regeneration*
Replantation
Reverse Transcription
RNA, Messenger
Root Resorption
Tooth Replantation*
Tooth*
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
RNA, Messenger
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