J Nutr Health.  2019 Aug;52(4):323-331. 10.4163/jnh.2019.52.4.323.

Protective effect of dietary oils containing omega-3 fatty acids against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Bioecology, Hygiene and public health, Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, 420012, Russia. amelbahnasavi@stud.kpfu.ru
  • 2Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, 12622, Egypt.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in secondary osteoporosis, and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in bone metabolism. However, few trials have studied the impact of omega-3 PUFA-containing oils against GC-induced osteoporosis. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine whether supplementation with omega-3 PUFA-containing dietary oils such as fish oil, flaxseed oil or soybean oil can impede the development of GC-induced osteoporosis.
METHODS
The fatty acids (FAs) content of oils was determined using gas chromatography. Male rats were subdivided into 5 groups (8 rats each): normal control (balanced diet), prednisolone control (10 mg/kg prednisolone daily), soybean oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + soybean oil 7% w/w), flaxseed oil (prednisolone 10 mg/kg + flaxseed oil 7% w/w), and fish oil (from cod liver; prednisolone 10 mg/kg + fish oil 7% w/w).
RESULTS
The study data exhibited a significant depletion in bone mineral density (BMD) and femur mass in the prednisolone control compared to the normal control, accompanied with a marked decrease in the levels of plasma calcium and 1,25-(OH)₂-vitamin D₃, and elevated levels of C-terminal telopeptide (CTX), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Supplementation with fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil helped to improve plasma calcium levels, and suppress oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Additionally, bone resorption was suppressed as reflected by the decreased CTX levels. However, fish oil was more effective than the other two oils with a significant improvement in BMD and normal histological results compared to the normal control.
CONCLUSION
This study demonstrated that supplementation with dietary oils containing omega-3 PUFAs such as fish oil, soybean oil or flaxseed oil can play a role in the prevention of bone loss and in the regulation of bone metabolism, especially fish oil which demonstrated a greater level of protection against GC-induced osteoporosis.

Keyword

glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis; fish oil; soybean oil; flaxseed oil; inflammation

MeSH Terms

Animals
Bone Density
Bone Resorption
Calcium
Chromatography, Gas
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated*
Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids, Omega-3*
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Femur
Fish Oils
Glucocorticoids
Humans
Inflammation
Linseed Oil
Liver
Male
Malondialdehyde
Metabolism
Oils
Osteoporosis*
Oxidative Stress
Plasma
Prednisolone
Rats
Soybean Oil
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Calcium
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
Fatty Acids
Fatty Acids, Omega-3
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Fish Oils
Glucocorticoids
Linseed Oil
Malondialdehyde
Oils
Prednisolone
Soybean Oil
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Figure

  • Fig. 1 Photomicrographs of bones of rats from (A) the normal control group showing no histopathological changes, normal cortical bone thickness and normal osteocyte; (B) the prednisolone control group showing several resorption cavities within the matrix, abnormal osteocyte, and thin cortical bone with presence of cracks and fissures; (C) the soybean oil group (S) showing few cracks and fissures in the cortical bone; (D) the flaxseed oil group (X) showing focal necrosis with few cracks and fissures in the cortical bone; and (E) the fish oil group (F) showing no histopathological changes, normal bone cortex and normal osteocyte (H & E × 100).


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