J Bacteriol Virol.  2018 Dec;48(4):121-129. 10.4167/jbv.2018.48.4.121.

Distribution and Characterization of Airborne Respiratory Pathogens in Public Facilities

Affiliations
  • 1Busan Metropolitan City Institute of Health & Environment, Busan, Korea. kies98@korea.kr

Abstract

Respiratory infections, which are caused by airborne pathogens, are the most common disease of all ages worldwide. This study was conducted to characterize the airborne respiratory pathogens in the public facilities in Busan, South Korea. A total of 260 public facilities were investigated in 2017, 52 seasonal indoor air from 2 hospitals and 208 indoor air samples from 208 randomly selected daycare centers. Among respiratory pathogen, 8 viral pathogens including human adenovirus (HAdV), human bocavirus (HBoV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV) and influenza virus (IFV), and 3 bacterial pathogens including Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, were investigated by multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pathogens were detected in 9 cases (3.4%). Among 9 positive samples, 6 (2.3%) cases were positive for HBoV and 3 (1.2%) cases were positive for IFV. All the positive cases were detected in daycare centers. Additionally, the concentration of HBoV was determined. In HBoV-positive samples, the cycle threshold (Ct) values of HBoV were 29.73~36.84, which are corresponding to the viral concentration of 4.91 × 10⁰ ~ 9.57 × 10² copies/ml. Serotype distribution of isolated HBoV was analyzed by sequencing of VP1/VP2 gene. All of the HBoV isolates were identified as HBoV type 1 with a high similarity among the isolates (>97%). No bacterial pathogen was identified in indoor air samples. Although virus concentration was not high in public facilities (daycare center), the presence of respiratory viral pathogens has been identified. Effective ventilation and air purification strategies are needed to reduce the indoor concentration of respiratory pathogens. A long-term and ongoing surveillance plan for respiratory pathogen management should be established.

Keyword

Airborne respiratory pathogen; Respiratory viruses; Daycare center

MeSH Terms

Adenoviruses, Human
Bordetella pertussis
Busan
Chlamydial Pneumonia
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Coronavirus
Human bocavirus
Humans
Korea
Metapneumovirus
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Orthomyxoviridae
Paramyxoviridae Infections
Pneumonia, Mycoplasma
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Public Facilities*
Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human
Respiratory Tract Infections
Reverse Transcription
Rhinovirus
Seasons
Serogroup
Ventilation
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