Genomics Inform.  2019 Mar;17(1):e7. 10.5808/GI.2019.17.1.e7.

Advances in Serological Diagnosis of Taenia solium Neurocysticercosis in Korea

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Molecular Parasitology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 16419, Korea. kongy@skku.edu
  • 2Department of Parasitology and Institute of Medical Education, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon 24252, Korea.
  • 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Abstract

Cysticercosis, a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode (TsM), has a major global public health impact in terms of disability-adjusted life years. The parasite preferentially infects subcutaneous tissue, but may invade the central nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis (NC). NC is an important neglected tropical disease and an emerging disease in industrialized countries due to immigration from endemic areas. The prevalence of taeniasis in Korea declined from 0.3%-12.7% during the 1970s to below 0.02% since the 2000s. A survey conducted from 1993 to 2006 revealed that the percentage of tested samples with high levels of specific anti-TsM antibody declined from 8.3% to 2.2%, suggesting the continuing occurrence of NC in Korea. Modern imaging modalities have substantially improved the diagnostic accuracy of NC, and recent advances in the molecular biochemical characterization of the TsM cyst fluid proteome also significantly strengthened NC serodiagnosis. Two glycoproteins of 150 and 120 kDa that induce strong antibody responses against sera from patients with active-stage NC have been elucidated. The 150 kDa protein showed hydrophobic-ligand binding activities and might be critically involved in the acquisition of host-derived lipid molecules. Fasciclin and endophilin B1, both of which play roles in the homeostatic functions of TsM, showed fairly high antibody responses against calcified NC cases. NC is now controllable and manageable. Further studies should focus on controlling late-onset intractable seizures and serological diagnosis of NC patients infected with few worms. This article briefly overviews diagnostic approaches and discusses current issues relating to NC serodiagnosis.

Keyword

immunodiagnosis; neurocysticercosis; proteome; Republic of Korea; Taenia solium

MeSH Terms

Antibody Formation
Central Nervous System
Cyst Fluid
Cysticercosis
Developed Countries
Diagnosis*
Emigration and Immigration
Glycoproteins
Humans
Immunologic Tests
Korea*
Neurocysticercosis*
Parasites
Parasitic Diseases
Prevalence
Proteome
Public Health
Republic of Korea
Seizures
Serologic Tests
Subcutaneous Tissue
Taenia solium*
Taenia*
Taeniasis
Glycoproteins
Proteome
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