Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2017 Apr;14(2):103-112. 10.1007/s13770-016-0004-3.

Phytoestrogen (Daidzein) Promotes Chondrogenic Phenotype of Human Chondrocytes in 2D and 3D Culture Systems

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. suhaeb@um.edu.my simmratsingh@um.edu.my
  • 2School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore.
  • 3Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. selvee@um.edu.my rothan@um.edu.my yeeyongmei@live.com.my rohana@um.edu.my

Abstract

Clinical investigations have shown a significant relationship between osteoarthritis (OA) and estrogens levels in menopausalwomen. Therefore, treatment with exogenous estrogens has been shownto decrease the risk ofOA.However, the effect estrogen has not been clearly demonstrated in the chondrocytes using phytoestrogens, which lack the specific side-effects of estrogens, may provide an alternative therapy. This study was designed to examine the possible effects of phytoestrogen (daidzein) on human chondrocyte phenotype and extracellular matrix formation. Phytoestrogens which lack the specific side-effects of estrogens may provide beneficial effect without causing hormone based side effect. Human chondrocytes cells were cultured in 2D (flask) and 3D (PCL-CA scaffold) systems. Daidzein cytotoxic effect was determined by MTT assay. Chondrocyte cellular content of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), total collagen and chondrogenic gene expression were determined in both culture systems after treatment with daidzein.Daidzein showedtime-dependent and dose-independent effects on chondrocyte bioactivity.Thecompound at low doses showed significant (p<0.05) increase in total collagen andGAGsproduction at similar levels in 2Dand 3Dculture environment. The mRNA levels of Collagen II and Sox9 were increased significantly (p<0.01) after the treatment while the upregulation in COMP expression was statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The expression levels of Fibronectin, Laminin and Integrin b1were significantly increased especially in3Dculture system. This studywas illustrated the potential positive effects of daidzein onmaintenance of human chondrocyte phenotype and extracellular matrix formation suggesting an attractive and viable alternative therapy for OA.

Keyword

Phytoestrogens; Human chondrocyte; Extracellular matrix; PCL-CA scaffold; Osteoarthritis

MeSH Terms

Chondrocytes*
Collagen
Estrogens
Extracellular Matrix
Fibronectins
Gene Expression
Glycosaminoglycans
Humans*
Laminin
Osteoarthritis
Phenotype*
Phytoestrogens*
RNA, Messenger
Up-Regulation
Collagen
Estrogens
Fibronectins
Glycosaminoglycans
Laminin
Phytoestrogens
RNA, Messenger
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