J Korean Acad Nurs.  2016 Feb;46(1):100-108. 10.4040/jkan.2016.46.1.100.

Influence of Nurse Managers' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: Focused on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment

  • 1College of Nursing, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. shahn@catholic.ac.kr


The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationship of nurse managers' authentic leadership, with nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction.
The participants in this study were 273 registered nurses working in five University hospitals located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The measurements included the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire, Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Korea-Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe test, Pearson correlation coefficients, simple and multiple regression techniques with the SPSS 18.0 program. Mediation analysis was performed according to the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test.
There were significant correlations among authentic leadership, empowerment, organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Empowerment showed perfect mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and organizational commitment. It had partial mediating effects in the relationship between authentic leadership and job satisfaction.
In this study, nurse managers' authentic leadership had significant influences on nurses organizational commitment and job satisfaction via empowerment. Therefore, to enhance nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction, it is necessary to build effective strategies to enhance nurse manager's authentic leadership and to develop empowering education programs for nurses.


Nurse administrators; Leadership; Nurses; Power (Psychology); Job satisfaction

MeSH Terms

Attitude of Health Personnel
Hospitals, University
*Job Satisfaction
Nurse Administrators/psychology
Nursing Staff, Hospital/*psychology
Organizational Culture
*Power (Psychology)
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult


  • Figure 1 Model showing the influence of authentic leadership on organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and the mediating effect of empowerment.

Cited by  2 articles

Effect of Head Nurses' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Job Satisfaction and Nursing Performance: Focusing on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment
Mi-Jeong Kim, Ji-Young Han
J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 2019;25(1):25-34.    doi: 10.11111/jkana.2019.25.1.25.

Impact of Self-leadership and Organizational Commitment on the Intention of Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses to Remain in the Profession
Hyun Sook Park
J Korean Acad Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2016;25(4):409-417.    doi: 10.12934/jkpmhn.2016.25.4.409.


1. Gardner WL, Avolio BJ, Luthans F, May DR, Walumbwa F. "Can you see the real me?" self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadersh Q. 2005; 16(3):343–372. DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.003.
2. Walumbwa FO, Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Wernsing TS, Peterson SJ. Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. J Manage. 2008; 34(1):89–126. DOI: 10.1177/0149206307308913.
3. Avolio BJ, Gardner WL. Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Leadersh Q. 2005; 16(3):315–338. DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.001.
4. Kernis MH. Toward a conceptualization of optimal self-esteem. Psychol Inq. 2003; 14(1):1–26. DOI: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1401_01.
5. Jensen SM, Luthans F. Entrepreneurs as authentic leaders: Impact on employees' attitudes. Leadersh Organ Manage J. 2006; 27(8):646–666. DOI: 10.1108/01437730610709273.
6. Wong CA, Laschinger HKS. Authentic leadership, performance, and job satisfaction: The mediating role of empowerment. J Adv Nurs. 2013; 69(4):947–959. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06089.x.
7. Allen NJ, Meyer JP. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. J Occup Psychol. 1990; 63(1):1–8. DOI: 10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x.
8. Park HH, Park KS, Yom YH, Kim KH. Impact of clinical nurses' power and empowerment on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2006; 36(2):244–254.
9. Weiss DJ, Dawis RV, England GW, Lofquist LH. Manual for the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center;1967.
10. Kanter RM. Men and women of the corporation. New York, NY: Basic Books;1977.
11. Laschinger HKS, Wong CA, Grau AL. The influence of authentic leadership on newly graduated nurses' experiences of workplace bullying, burnout and retention outcomes: A cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2012; 49(10):1266–1276. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.05.012.
12. Lee YM, Kim BM. The mediator effect of empowerment in relationship between transformational leadership and organizational commitment. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2008; 38(4):603–611. DOI: 10.4040/jkan.2008.38.4.603.
13. Shirey MR. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice. Am J Crit Care. 2006; 15(3):256–267.
14. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang AG. Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods. 2009; 41(4):1149–1160. DOI: 10.3758/brm.41.4.1149.
15. Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Walumbwa FO. Authentic leadership questionnaire [Internet]. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden Inc.;2015. cited 2015 January 26. Available from: http://www.mindgarden.com/products/alqconsult.htm.
16. Choi HS, Lee JS. A study on the validation of authentic leadership questionnaire in Korean corporate sites. J Lifelong Educ HRD. 2010; 6(3):89–114.
17. Laschinger HK, Finegan J, Shamian J, Wilk P. Impact of structural and psychological empowerment on job strain in nursing work settings: Expanding Kanter's model. J Nurs Adm. 2001; 31(5):260–272.
18. Mowday RT, Steers RM, Porter LW. The measurement of organizational commitment. J Vocat Behav. 1979; 14(2):224–247. DOI: 10.1016/0001-8791(79)90072-1.
19. Lee MH. Relationship between organizational culture types and organizational effectiveness in hospitals. J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 1998; 4(2):363–385.
20. Park IJ. A validation study of the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) [master's thesis]. Seoul: Seoul National University;2005.
21. Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986; 51(6):1173–1182.
22. Song B, Seomun G. The influential factors related to organizational citizenship behavior of nurses: With focus on authentic leadership and organizational justice. J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 2014; 20(2):237–246. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2014.20.2.237.
23. Oh EH, Chung BY. The effect of empowerment on nursing performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in hospital nurses. J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 2011; 17(4):391–401. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2011.17.4.391.
24. Kim MJ, Kim HY. The impact of social support and self-esteem on nurses' empowerment. J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 2014; 20(5):558–566. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2014.20.5.558.
25. Seo YY, Ju HO. Influence of nursing organizational culture on empowerment as perceived by new nurses. J Korean Acad Nurs Adm. 2011; 17(1):88–95. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2011.17.1.88.
26. Oh EH. The effect of nurse empowerment program [dissertation]. Daegu: Kyungpook National University;2014.
27. Kim JH. The substitution effect of leadership substitutes for transformational leadership in nursing organization. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2006; 36(2):361–372.
28. Conger JA, Kanungo RN. The empowerment process: Integrating theory and practice. Acad Manage Rev. 1988; 13(3):471–482. DOI: 10.5465/AMR.1988.4306983.
29. Eo YS, Kim YH, Lee NY. Path analysis of empowerment and work effectiveness among staff nurses. Asian Nurs Res. 2014; 8(1):42–48. DOI: 10.1016/j.anr.2014.02.001.
Full Text Links
  • JKAN
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr