J Korean Acad Nurs Adm.  2019 Jan;25(1):25-34. 10.11111/jkana.2019.25.1.25.

Effect of Head Nurses' Authentic Leadership on Nurses' Job Satisfaction and Nursing Performance: Focusing on the Mediating Effects of Empowerment

  • 1Bumin Hospital, Korea.
  • 2Department of Nursing, Silla University, Korea. hanjy@silla.ac.kr


The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of head nurses' authentic leadership and empowerment on job satisfaction, and nursing performance of nurses and to identify the mediating effect of empowerment in the relationships of head nurses' authentic leadership, with nurses' job satisfaction, and nursing performance.
The sample for this study was 149 nurses from 2 general hospitals located in Busan. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and the SPSS/WIN 23.0 program was used for analysis. Mediation analysis was performed according to the Baron and Kenny method and Sobel test.
Head nurses' authentic leadership showed positive correlations with empowerment, job satisfaction, and nursing performance. Empowerment showed partial mediating effects in the relationship between head nurses' authentic leadership and nurses job satisfaction, and a perfect mediating effect in the relationship between head nurses' authentic leadership and the performance of nursing.
The results indicate that it is necessary to develop strategies and applications to enhance nurses' empowerment for improved job satisfaction and nursing performance.


Nurses; Leadership; Power; Job satisfaction; Work performance

MeSH Terms

Hospitals, General
Job Satisfaction*
Power (Psychology)*
Work Performance


1. Han JR, Ahn SH. The effects of nurses' satisfaction on hospital performance -focused on the patient satisfaction and revisit intention, recommendation intention-. Journal of Digital Convergence. 2015; 13(9):419–430. DOI: 10.14400/JDC.2015.13.9.419.
2. Joo YS, Han SS. The effect of nurses' emotional intelligence on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship. Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education. 2013; 19(2):194–202. DOI: 10.5977/jkasne.2013.19.2.194.
3. Kim JO, Kim SY. Person-organization value congruence between authentic leadership of head nurses and organizational citizenship behavior in clinical nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2017; 23(5):515–523. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2017.23.5.515.
4. Jeong YJ, Lee SJ, Kim MJ. Transformational leader vs. authentic leader: Transformational leadership revisited. Korean Management Review. 2012; 41(3):539–573.
5. Yoon SH, Kim HR. The effects of superior's authentic leadership on trust and job crafting: focused on nurses of general hospitals in U area. KASBA. 2016 Integration Korea Business Management Association Conference. Seoul: Korean Academic Society of Business Administration;2016. 8:p. 1358–1388.
6. Wong CA, Laschinger HKS, Cummings GG. Authentic leadership and nurses' voice behaviour and perceptions of care quality. Journal of Nursing Management. 2010; 18(8):889–900. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2010.01113.x.
7. Walumbwa FO, Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Wernsing TS, Peterson SJ. Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management. 2008; 34(1):89–126.
8. Kuokkanen L, Leino-Kilpi H. Power and empowerment in nursing: Three theoretical approaches. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2000; 31(1):235–241. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2000.01241.x.
9. Oh EH, Chung BY. The effect of empowerment on nursing performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention in hospital nurses. The Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2011; 17(4):391–401. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2011.17.4.391.
10. Choi JY, Kim EK, Kim SY. Effects of empowerment and job satisfaction on nursing performance of clinical nurses. The Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2014; 20(4):426–436. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2014.20.4.426.
11. Lee SY. The relationships of superior's leadership to supervisory trust and organizational commitment of nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2007; 13(2):208–218.
12. Kim MS, Park SA. Comparison of nursing performance by career levels in a nurse career ladder system. The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education. 2012; 8(2):284–292. DOI: 10.5977/jkasne.2012.18.2.284.
13. Song BR, Seomun GA. The influential factors related to organizational citizenship behavior of nurses: With focus on authentic leadership and organizational justice. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2014; 20(2):237–246. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2014.20.2.237.
14. Choi HG, Ahn SH. Influence of nurse managers' authentic leadership on nurses' organizational commitment and job satisfaction: Focused on the mediating effects of empowerment. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2016; 46(1):100–108. DOI: 10.4040/jkan.2016.46.1.100.
15. Cho JH, Yu JH, Seo KW. Influence of authentic leadership and coworker support on the psychological well-being of staff nurses. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing. 2018; 27(2):89–98. DOI: 10.5807/kjohn.2018.27.2.89.
16. Avolio BJ, Gardner WL, Walumbwa FO. Authentic leadership questionnaire [Internet]. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden Inc.;2015. cited 2015 January 26. Available from: http://www.mindgarden.com/69-authentic-leadership-questionnaire.
17. Spreizer A. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimension, management and validation. The Academy of Management Journal. 1995; 38(5):1442–1465. DOI: 10.2307/256865.
18. Jung HJ. A study on the influence of empowerment on job satisfaction and organizational commitment [master's thesis]. Seoul: Seoul National University;1998. 1–98.
19. Slavitt DB, Stamps PL, Piedmont EB, Hesse AM. Nurses' satisfaction with their work situation. Nursing Research. 1978; 27(42):114–120.
20. Park SA, Yun SN. Measurement of job satisfaction of nurses and health workers in health centers. Korean Society of Nursing Science. 1992; 22(3):316–324.
21. Kim MS. The influence of career ladder system on nursing performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention [dissertation]. Seoul: Seoul National University;2013. 1–115.
22. Park SA. An exploratory study on the relationship between leadership style and performance in Korean nursing units. The Seoul Journal of Nursing. 1990; 4(1):45–61.
23. Kim YI. A study on leadership style of head nurses and staff nurses' job satisfaction and nursing performance [master's thesis]. Daejeon: Daejeon University;2002. 1–67.
24. Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1986; 51:1173–1182.
25. Song MS. The relationships between the empowerment, nursing performance, job satisfaction and turnover intention of long-term care hospital nurses. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society. 2013; 14(5):2304–2314. DOI: 10.5762/KAIS.2013.14.5.2304.
26. Yoo SO, Lee SY, Han SO, Chang NS, Kim YO, Hu JY, et al. Empowerment, performance and job satisfaction perceived by hospital nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2006; 12(3):406–414.
27. Wong CA, Laschinger HKS. Authentic leadership, performance, and job satisfaction: The mediating role of empowerment. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2013; 69(4):947–959. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06089.x.
28. Park HH, Park KS, Yom YH, Kim KH. Impact of clinical nurses' power and empowerment on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2006; 36(2):244–254.
29. Jung M. Influence of head nurses' ethical leadership on job satisfaction among staff nurses: mediating effect of affective commitment. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration. 2016; 22(5):553–561. DOI: 10.11111/jkana.2016.22.5.553.
30. Kim YM, Yi YJ. Influence of job stress and empowerment on clinical nurses' performance in small and medium hospitals. Korean Journal of Occupational Health Nursing. 2012; 21(3):258–265. DOI: 10.5807/kjohn.2012.21.3.258.
Full Text Links
export Copy
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2024 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr