Korean J Radiol.  2017 Feb;18(1):42-53. 10.3348/kjr.2017.18.1.42.

Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Era of Precision Medicine: What Radiologists Should Know

  • 1Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. mbraschi@partners.org
  • 2Department of Medical Oncology and Medicine, Dana Farber Cancer Institue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.


Over the past five years immune-checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of advanced solid and hematologic malignancies. The currently approved immune-checkpoint inhibitors include antibodies to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, programmed cell death (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1 and PD-L2). Response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors is evaluated on imaging using the immune-related response criteria. Activation of immune system results in a unique toxicity profile termed immune-related adverse events. This article will review the molecular mechanism, clinical applications, imaging of immune-related response patterns and adverse events associated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors.


Immune-checkpoint inhibitor; Toxicity; Response; Immune-related Response Criteria

MeSH Terms

Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects/*therapeutic use
Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects/*therapeutic use
B7-H1 Antigen/immunology
CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology
Immunotherapy/adverse effects/*methods
Neoplasms/*diagnostic imaging/immunology/*therapy
Precision Medicine/methods
Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology
Antibodies, Monoclonal
Antineoplastic Agents
B7-H1 Antigen
CTLA-4 Antigen
Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor
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