Tissue Eng Regen Med.  2019 Aug;16(4):415-429. 10.1007/s13770-019-00192-0.

Three-dimensional Printed Mg-Doped b-TCP Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: Effects of Magnesium Ion Concentration on Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis In Vitro

Affiliations
  • 1The Second Clinical Medical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 232 Waihuan East Road, Guangzhou 510006, China. niuwei@139.com
  • 2Orthopedics Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 111 Dade Road, Guangzhou 510120, China.
  • 3Medprin Regenerative Medical Technologies Co., Ltd, Guangzhou 510663, China.
  • 4East China Institute of Digital Medical Engineering, Shangrao 334000, China. taoxu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • 5Department of Mechanical Engineering, Biomanufacturing Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
  • 6Department of Precision Medicine and Healthcare, Tsinghua-Berkeley Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Three-dimensional (3D) printed bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been widely used in research and clinical applications. β-TCP is a biomaterial commonly used in bone tissue engineering to treat bone defects, and its multifunctionality can be achieved by co-doping different metal ions. Magnesium doping in biomaterials has been shown to alter physicochemical properties of cells and enhance osteogenesis.
METHODS
A series of Mg-doped TCP scaffolds were manufactured by using cryogenic 3D printing technology and sintering. The characteristics of the porous scaffolds, such as microstructure, chemical composition, mechanical properties, apparent porosity, etc., were examined. To further study the role of magnesium ions in simultaneously inducing osteogenesis and angiogenesis, human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and human umblical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in scaffold extracts to investigate cell proliferation, viability, and expression of osteogenic and angiogenic genes.
RESULTS
The results showed that Mg-doped TCP scaffolds have the advantages of precise design, interconnected porous structure, and similar compressive strength to natural cancellous bone. hBMSCs and HUVECs exhibit high proliferation rate, cell morphology and viability in a certain amount of Mg²âº. In addition, this concentration of magnesium can also increase the expression levels of osteogenic and angiogenic biomarkers.
CONCLUSION
A certain concentration of magnesium ions plays an important role in new bone regeneration and reconstruction. It can be used as a simple and effective method to enhance the osteogenesis and angiogenesis of bioceramic scaffolds, and support the development of biomaterials and bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

Keyword

3D porous scaffolds; Ion doping; Magnesium ions; Osteogenesis; Angiogenesis

MeSH Terms

Biocompatible Materials
Biomarkers
Bone and Bones*
Bone Marrow
Bone Regeneration
Cell Proliferation
Compressive Strength
Endothelial Cells
Humans
In Vitro Techniques*
Ions
Magnesium*
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Methods
Osteogenesis*
Porosity
Printing, Three-Dimensional
Veins
Biocompatible Materials
Biomarkers
Ions
Magnesium
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