Infect Chemother.  2004 Oct;36(5):286-293.

Expression of Toll-like Receptors on the Macrophages Activated by Bacterial Superantigens

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea. hyksos@wonju.yonsei.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) as a prototype superantigen is known to play a pivotal role in toxic shock syndrome and severe sepsis. However, the precise mechanism initiating the activation of innate effector cells by SEB is unclear. Recently, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the sensor of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP), have been reported to be expressed abundantly in monocytic lineage-cells. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether TLRs are involved in the SEB-induced immune cell activation and to prove the differential TLRs expression in response to SEB and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
SEB was purified by dye ligand affinity chromatography. The mRNA expression of TLR1-9 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human monocyte- like THP-1 cell line stimulated by SEB and/or LPS was detected by RT-PCR.
RESULTS
The treatment of PBMC with SEB elicited significant changes in the expression of several TLRs. Interestingly, the mRNAs of TLR1 and TLR5 were clearly up-regulated in PBMC, whereas mRNA of TLR4 was down-regulated in the very early period of stimulation within 1-2 hours, and subsequently up-regulated 3 hours later after the stimulation. The up-regulation of mRNA of TLR4 was detected in PBMC stimulated by LPS. The up-regulation was more prominent in the cells exposed concomitantly to SEB and LPS. The mRNA expression pattern of TLR4 in THP-1 cell line stimulated by SEB or LPS was comparable to those of PBMC.
CONCLUSION
This study indicates that SEB triggers inflammatory signals on macrophages and PBMC by engaging TLRs, particularly TLR4. The combination of LPS and SEB synergistically modulates TLR4 signaling.

Keyword

Toll-like receptor; Superantigen; Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

MeSH Terms

Cell Line
Chromatography, Affinity
Enterotoxins
Humans
Macrophages*
RNA, Messenger
Sepsis
Shock, Septic
Superantigens*
Toll-Like Receptors*
Up-Regulation
Enterotoxins
RNA, Messenger
Superantigens
Toll-Like Receptors
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