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Intravenous Administration of Toll-Like Receptor Inhibitory Peptide 1 is Effective for the Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Mus musculus Model

Baek WY, Lee SM, Lee SW, Son IO, Choi S, Suh CH

Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease. According to recent studies, signaling through Toll-like receptor (TLR) protein, which promotes the production of inflammatory cytokines, leads...
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Toll-like Receptor 2 in Autoimmune Inflammation

Marks KE, Cho K, Stickling C, Reynolds JM

TLR signaling is critical for broad scale immune recognition of pathogens and/or danger molecules. TLRs are particularly important for the activation and the maturation of cells comprising the innate immune...
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Colonic Gene Expression and Fecal Microbiota in Diarrhea-predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Increased Toll-like Receptor 4 but Minimal Inflammation and no Response to Mesalazine

Jalanka J, Lam C, Bennett A, Hartikainen A, Crispie F, Finnegan LA, Cotter PD, Spiller R

  • KMID: 2514686
  • J Neurogastroenterol Motil.
  • 2021 Apr;27(2):279-291.
  • doi: 10.5056/jnm20205
Background/Aims Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) has been previously associated with evidence of immune activation and altered microbiota. Our aim is to assess the effect of the anti-inflammatory agent, mesalazine, on...
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Dietary glucosinolates inhibit splenic inflammation in high fat/cholesterol diet-fed C57BL/6 mice

Gu H, Gwon MH, Kim SM, Yun JM

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The spleen is the largest organ of the lymphatic system and has an important role in immunity. Obesity-induced inflammatory responses are triggered by Toll-like...
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Upregulation of Toll-like Receptor 2 in Dental Primary Afferents Following Pulp Injury

Lee PR, Lee JH, Park JM, Oh SB

  • KMID: 2522146
  • Exp Neurobiol.
  • 2021 Oct;30(5):329-340.
  • doi: 10.5607/en21018
Pulpitis (toothache) is a painful inflammation of the dental pulp and is a prevalent problem throughout the world. This pulpal inflammation occurs in the cells inside the dental pulp, which...
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NaHCO 3- and NaCl-Type Hot Springs Enhance the Secretion of Inflammatory Cytokine Induced by Polyinosinic-Polycytidylic Acid in HaCaT Cells

Park SH, Jung BY, Lee SY, Yu DS, Woo SY, Yun ST, Lee JT, Kim JW, Lee YB

Background: Hot springs have been traditionally used as an alternative treatment for a wide range of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, diabetes, hypertension, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. However, the...
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Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-kappa B pathway is involved in radicular pain by encouraging spinal microglia activation and inflammatory response in a rat model of lumbar disc herniation

Zhu L, Huang Y, Hu Y, Tang Q, Zhong Y

Background: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common cause of radicular pain, but the mechanism is not clear. In this study, we investigated the engagement of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
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Toll-like Receptor 4 Deficiency Aggravates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Impairing Neutrophil Apoptosis in a Toluene Diisocyanate-Induced Murine Asthma Model

Chen S, Deng Y, He Q, Chen Y, Wang D, Sun W, He Y, Zou Z, Liang Z, Chen R, Yao L, Tao A

Purpose: Accumulating evidence has suggested that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is critically involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR4...
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TLR10 and Its Unique Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Potential Use as a Target in Therapeutics

Fore F, Indriputri C, Mamutse J, Nugraha J

TLRs are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) whose cytoplasmic signalling domain is similar to that of IL-1. The extracellular domain of TLRs serve as the binding site of pathogen associated molecular...
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Anti-colonic Inflammation by Black Raspberries through Regulating Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling in Interlukin-10 Knockout Mice

Huang YW, Echeveste CE, Oshima K, Zhang J, Yearsley M, Yu J, Wang LS

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon, with a steadily rising prevalence in Western and newly industrialized countries. UC patients have a cancer incidence as high...
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Porcine parvovirus nonstructural protein NS1 activates NF-κB and it involves TLR2 signaling pathway

Jin X, Yuan Y, Zhang C, Zhou Y, Song Y, Wei Z, Zhang G

Background: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that causes porcine reproductive failure. It is of critical importance to study PPV pathogenesis for the prevention and control of the...
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Limited expression of TLR9 on T cells and its functionalconsequences in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liverdisease

Alegre NS, Garcia CC, Billordo L, Ameigeiras B, Poncino D, Benavides , Colombato , Cherñavsky AC

Background/Aims: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) modulate T cell responses in diverse diseases. Co-stimulation of T cell activation via TLR9 induces production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), priming of which is critical for...
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Toll-like receptor 9, a possible blocker of non-alcoholicsteatohepatitis?

Jeong SW

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Role of microglial activation on neuronal excitability in rat substantia gelatinosa

Park A, Chun SW

Glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, interact closely with neurons and modulate pain transmission, particularly under pathological conditions. In this study, we examined the excitability of substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons...
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Downregulation of IL-18 Expression in the Gut by Metformin-induced Gut Microbiota Modulation

Lee H, Kim J, An J, Lee S, Choi D, Kong H, Song Y, Park IH, Lee CK, Kim K

IL-18 is a crucial pro-inflammatory cytokine that mediates chronic intestinal inflammation. Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, was reported to have ameliorative effects on inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, the mechanism of action...
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Analgesic Effect of Toll-like Receptor 4 Antagonistic Peptide 2 on Mechanical Allodynia Induced with Spinal Nerve Ligation in Rats

Yin Y, Park H, Lee SY, Lee WH, Song HJ, Kim J, Kim DW, Hong J

Neuroinflammation is one of the key mechanisms of neuropathic pain, which is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways in microglia. Therefore, TLR4 may be a reasonable...
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A Fusion Protein of Derp2 Allergen and Flagellin Suppresses Experimental Allergic Asthma

Tan W, Zheng JH, Duong TM, Koh YI, Lee SE, Rhee JH

PURPOSE: The house dust mite (HDM) is one of the most important sources of indoor allergens and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Our previous studies demonstrated...
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Comparison of inflammatory cytokine-inducing activity of lipopolysaccharides from major periodontal bacteria

Kim SH, Kang IC

Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) are major periodontal pathogens. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from periodontal bacteria play an important role in...
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Human Immunity Against Campylobacter Infection

Hameed A

Campylobacter is a worldwide foodborne pathogen, associated with human gastroenteritis. The efficient translocation of Campylobacter and its ability to secrete toxins into host cells are the 2 key features of...
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Targeting Microglial and Neuronal Toll-like Receptor 2 in Synucleinopathies

Kwon S, Iba M, Masliah E, Kim C

Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the progressive accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) in neurons and glia and include Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). In this review,...
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