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Nusinersen as a Therapeutic Agent for Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Li Q

The reduction of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease. Nusinersen is an antisense oligonucleotide, approved by the FDA, which specifically binds...
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tPA Helpers in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Are They Ready for Clinical Use?

Kim JS

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only therapeutic agent approved to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke. The clinical benefits of tPA manifest when the agent is administered within 4.5...
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Involvement of a Novel Organic Cation Transporter in Paeonol Transport Across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Gyawali A, Krol S, Kang YS

Paeonol has neuroprotective function, which could be useful for improving central nervous system disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize the functional mechanism involved in brain transport of...
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Tenovin-1 Induces Senescence and Decreases Wound-Healing Activity in Cultured Rat Primary Astrocytes

Bang M, Ryu O, Kim DG, Mabunga DF, Cho KS, Kim Y, Han SH, Kwon KJ, Shin CY

Brain aging induces neuropsychological changes, such as decreased memory capacity, language ability, and attention; and is also associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, most of the studies on brain aging are...
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C3a Receptor Inhibition Protects Brain Endothelial Cells Against Oxygen-glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion

Ahmad S, Kindelin A, Khan SA, Ahmed M, Hoda MN, Bhatia K, Ducruet AF

The complement cascade is a central component of innate immunity which plays a critical role in brain inflammation. Complement C3a receptor (C3aR) is a key mediator of post-ischemic cerebral injury,...
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Perspective in Nuclear Theranostics Using Exosome for the Brain

Hwang DW

Owing to its highly biocompatible property as naturally produced nanoscale particle and drug carrying ability, exosome has attracted much interest in the biomedical area. Versatile functions of exosome in biological...
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Effects of Intraperitoneal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Administration on Nociceptive/Repetitive Behaviors in Juvenile Mice

Kim S, Kim DG, Gonzales E, Mabunga DF, Shin D, Jeon SJ, Shin CY, Ahn T, Kwon KJ

Dysregulation of excitatory neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is widely used to model neurobehavioral pathologies and underlying mechanisms. There...
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Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity

Lee SJ

Cefepime, a widely used fourth-generation cephalosporin, has been reported to cause neurotoxicity because it crosses the blood-brain barrier. Although cefepime-induced neurotoxicity (CIN) occurs in patients with renal dysfunction administered a...
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Regulation of Diabetes: a Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer's Disease?

Ahn KC, Learman CR, Baker GB, Weaver CL, Chung PS, Kim HG, Song MS

Accumulated evidence suggests that sporadic cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) make up more than 95% of total AD patients, and diabetes has been implicated as a strong risk factor for...
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Transduced Tat-aldose Reductase Protects Hippocampal Neuronal Cells against Oxidative Stress-induced Damage

Cho SB, Eum WS, Shin MJ, Kwon HJ, Park JH, Choi YJ, Park J, Han KH, Kang JH, Kim DS, Cho SW, Kim DW, Choi SY

Aldose reductase (AR) protein, a member of the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase family, reduces a wide range of aldehydes and enhances cell survival by inhibition of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is...
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Cholesterol Metabolism in the Brain and Its Association with Parkinson's Disease

Jin U, Park SJ, Park SM

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the aging population after Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Defects in the lysosomal systems and mitochondria have been suspected to cause...
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Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound : Current Status and Future Perspectives in Thermal Ablation and Blood-Brain Barrier Opening

Lee EJ, Fomenko A, Lozano AM

Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging new technology with considerable potential to treat various neurological diseases. With refinement of ultrasound transducer technology and integration with magnetic resonance imaging...
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Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis in Alzheimer's Disease

Kowalski K, Mulak A

  • KMID: 2433497
  • J Neurogastroenterol Motil.
  • 2019 Jan;25(1):48-60.
  • doi: 10.5056/jnm18087
Disturbances along the brain-gut-microbiota axis may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia characterized by a progressive decline in...
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Could Management of Blood Pressure Prevent Dementia in the elderly?

Mogi M

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most relevant risk factors in vascular aging, stroke and vascular dementia (VD). In the elderly, the prevalence of mixed dementia, which consists of Alzheimer’s...
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Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: A Review Focusing on Pathophysiology, Biomarkers, and Machine Learning Strategies

Cuadrado-Godia E, Dwivedi P, Sharma S, Ois Santiago A, Roquer Gonzalez J, Balcells M, Laird J, Turk M, Suri HS, Nicolaides A, Saba L, Khanna NN, Suri JS

Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) has a crucial role in lacunar stroke and brain hemorrhages and is a leading cause of cognitive decline and functional loss in elderly patients. Based...
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Technical Review and Perspectives of Transcranial Focused Ultrasound Brain Stimulation for Neurorehabilitation

Yoo SS

Lack of a region-specific brain stimulation modality having both spatial specificity and depth penetration has limited clinicians to explore novel non-pharmacological treatment options in neurorehabilitation. Focused ultrasound (FUS) has shown...
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Interleukin-4 Contributes to Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons in the Lipopolysaccharide-treated Substantia Nigra in vivo

Bok E, Cho EJ, Chung ES, Shin WH, Jin BK

The present study investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-4 on dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed a significant...
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Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Perivascular Beta-Amyloid Accumulation in the Brain of Aged Rats with Spontaneous Hypertension: Evaluation with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Wang Y, Zhang R, Tao C, Xu Z, Chen W, Wang C, Song L, Zheng J, Gao F

OBJECTIVE: Whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption induced by chronic spontaneous hypertension is associated with beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to...
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Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: advances based on pre-clinical studies

Cheon SY, Koo BN

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs immediately after surgery and is characterized by impairment of memory and changes in cognition. POCD can last for several months or years and have adverse...
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Particulate Matter and Cognitive Function

Roh J, Jung HY, Lee KJ

The term “particulate Matter (PM)” refers to the mixture of small-sized solid particles and liquid droplets floating in the air, and is referred to as PM₁₀ ( < 10 µm),...
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