Korean J Orthod.  2003 Aug;33(4):293-305.

Airway size in malocclusions with hyperdivergent skeletal pattern

  • 1Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Korea. cbuortho@moak.chonbuk.ac.kr


The pharynx have significant locations and functions because it forms a part of the unit in which respiration and deglutition are carried out. Because of the closed relationship between the pharynx and the dentofacial and craniofacial structure, many studies are carried out on this subjects. The purpose of this study were to compare the airway size including pharynx, soft palate, tongue and hyoid bone between normal and hyperdivergent skeletal pattern and to evaluate the change of those size in different age. The sample of this study were consisted of 51 subjects in normal group, 52 subjects in hyperdivergent group. Each was divided into two subgroups by age ; child group(9-12yr old) and adult group(18yr old over). The lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken and the distance, angle and ratio of the facial skeleton, pharynx, soft palate, tongue and hyoid bone were measured and evaluated statistically. The result obtained were summarized as follows : 1. SN-Mn angle, FMA, and Pal-Mn angle were significantly larger in child group than adult group, but the lower anterior facial height(LAFH) and facial height ratio(FHR) were significantly smaller in child group than adult group. Occlu-Mn angle was significantly steep in hyperdivergent group than normal, but not significantly different between child group and adult group. 2. Hyperdivergent group and child group had the stronger correlation between SN-Mn angle, FMA, Pal-Mn angle, LAFH and FHR and airway size than normal group and adult group. Hyperdivergent child group had significant negative correlation between SN-Mn angle, FMA, Pal-Mn angle and sagittal skeletal dimension of nasopharynx and sagittal depth of nasopharyngeal lumen. Significant positive correlation were seen between LAFH and vertical measurement of airway. 3. There was no difference of the linear measurement of airway size between hyperdivergent group and normal group. 4. Adult group had smaller posterior pharyngeal wall, larger nasopharyngeal depth longer nasopharyngeal height and longer pharyngeal length than child group. 5. The sagittal measurement of hyoid bone had no difference between child group and adult group. But adult group had larger vertical measurement of hyoid bone than child group.


Hyperdivergent skeletal pattern; Airway size; Pharynx; Hyoid bone
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