Korean J Orthod.  2021 May;51(3):166-178. 10.4041/kjod.2021.51.3.166.

Effect of extraction treatment on upper airway dimensions in patients with bimaxillary skeletal protrusion relative to their vertical skeletal pattern

  • 1Department of Dentistry, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Postgraduate Orthodontic Program, Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health, A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ, USA
  • 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea


To investigate dimensional changes in regional pharyngeal airway spaces after premolar extraction in bimaxillary skeletal protrusion (BSP) patients according to vertical skeletal pattern, and to further identify dentoskeletal risk factors to predict posttreatment pharyngeal changes.
Fiftyfive adults showing BSP treated with microimplant anchorage after four premolar extractions were included in this retrospective study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to the mandibular plane steepness: hyperdivergent (Frankfort horizontal plane to mandibular plane [FH-MP] ≥ 30) and nonhyperdivergent groups (FH-MP < 30). The control group consisted of 20 untreated adults with skeletal Class I normodivergent pattern and favorable profile. Treatment changes in cephalometric variables were evaluated and compared. The association between posttreatment changes in the dentoskeletal and upper airway variables were analyzed using linear regression analysis.
The BSP patients showed no significant decrease in the pharyngeal dimensions to the lower level in comparison with controls, except for middle airway space (MAS, p < 0.01). The upper airway variable representing greater decrease in the hyperdivergent group than in the nonhyperdivergent group was the MAS (p < 0.01). Posttreatment changes in FH-MP had negative correlation with changes in MAS (β = –0.42, p < 0.01) and inferior airway space (β = –0.52, p < 0.01) as a result of multivariable regression analysis adjusted for sagittal skeletal relationship.
Decreased pharyngeal dimensions after treatment in BSP patients showed no significant difference from the normal range of pharyngeal dimensions. However, the glossopharyngeal airway space may be susceptible to treatment when vertical dimension increased in hyperdivergent BSP patients.


Airway; Cephalometrics; Bimaxillary skeletal protrusion; Vertical skeletal pattern
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