J Vet Sci.  2017 Dec;18(4):479-485. 10.4142/jvs.2017.18.4.479.

Differential and correlated expressions of p16/p21/p27/p38 in mammary gland tumors of aged dogs

  • 1Department of Veterinary Pathology, Small Animal Tumor Diagnostic Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea. jsur@konkuk.ac.kr


The inhibitory effect of neutering on mammary gland tumor development in dogs has been well described. However, we observed that the effect of neutering on tumor malignancy may be altered by aging. Therefore, we characterized mammary tumors in aged dogs by analyzing the expression of cellular senescence markers. Expressions of p16, p38, p21, and p27 antibodies, which are senescence-associated markers, were assessed in canine mammary tumors of aged dogs via immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, correlations between those expressions were analyzed. Expression of p16 was negatively associated with strong nuclear p27 expression. Expression of p38 was observed in most of the mammary tumors examined, and negative p38 expression was related to positive p21 expression. Moreover, p21 expression was associated with p27 expression; negative p21 expression was associated with negative p27 expression, while positive p21 expression was associated with positive p27 expression. The results confirm that the p21- and p27-encoding genes have similar expression patterns in the mammary tumors of aged dogs. In the present study, we characterized the expression of cellular senescence markers in these tumors and elucidated the relationships among their expression patterns.


aging; dogs; mammary neoplasms; neuter

MeSH Terms

Cell Aging
Mammary Glands, Human*
Mammary Neoplasms, Animal
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