J Nutr Health.  2017 Jun;50(3):203-216. 10.4163/jnh.2017.50.3.203.

A Comprehensive review of raisins and raisin components and their relationship to human health

Affiliations
  • 1Food & Nutrition Department, Whidbey Health Medical Center, WA 98239, United States of America.
  • 2College of Agriculture, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768, United States of America.
  • 3Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, MO 65211, United States of America.
  • 4School of Public Health, University of Texas-Houston, TX 77030, United States of America. jimpainterphd@gmail.com

Abstract

PURPOSE
This literature review was performed to assess the effect of raisins on human health.
METHODS
A review of Medline was conducted using the keywords: "˜raisins, raisins and health, raisins and cardiovascular disease (CVD), raisins and cancer, raisins and diabetes, raisins and fiber, raisins and colon health, raisins and antioxidants, raisins and inflammation, raisins and dental caries'. The reference lists from previous review articles on raisins and human health and the California Raisin Marketing Board files were reviewed for additional studies.
RESULTS
Raisins have one of the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant ORAC levels compared to other traditional dried fruits. Many of the polyphenols in raisins are well assimilated and bioavailable. Raisin consumption reduces low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar, when compared to equal caloric carbohydrate snacks and is associated with a reduced risk of CVD. The anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive effects of raisins are mixed. Raisin consumption reduces intestinal transit time and positively affects gut microbiota. Raisins produce sustained energy during long term athletic competitions equal to traditional sports energy gels, shots and jelly beans. Raisins produce a non-cariogenic oral environment and do not fit the American Academy of Pediatrics criteria to be considered a choking hazard.
CONCLUSIONS
Based on the review of literature, consumption of raisins provide numerous health benefits for promoting general wellness and in the prevention of many chronic diseases including: CVD, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) gastrointestinal diseases, and dental caries.

Keyword

raisins; health; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; antioxidants

MeSH Terms

Airway Obstruction
Antioxidants
Blood Glucose
Blood Pressure
California
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cholesterol
Chronic Disease
Colon
Dental Caries
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Fruit
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
Gels
Humans*
Inflammation
Insurance Benefits
Lipoproteins
Marketing
Pediatrics
Polyphenols
Snacks
Sports
Vitis*
Antioxidants
Blood Glucose
Cholesterol
Gels
Lipoproteins
Polyphenols
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