Nutr Res Pract.  2012 Jun;6(3):187-194.

Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

  • 1School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, Jeju National University, 1 Ara-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju 690-756, Korea.
  • 2Marine Bioprocess Research Centre, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737, Korea.
  • 3Food Biotechnology Major, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701, Korea.
  • 4Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyoung National University, Busan 608-737, Korea.
  • 5Department of Tourism Hotel Culinary Art, Jeju College of Technology, Jeju 690-140, Korea.


In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization.


Citrus press-cakes; fish and food-related pathogenic bacteria; high speed drying; far-infrared radiation drying; antibacterial agent

MeSH Terms

Cell Wall
Freeze Drying
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
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