Korean J Urol.  2010 Aug;51(8):561-564. 10.4111/kju.2010.51.8.561.

Is Activating Transcription Factor 3 Up-Regulated in Patients with Hypospadias?

Affiliations
  • 1Department of 2nd Urology, Istanbul Goztepe Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. gurbuzcenk@yahoo.com
  • 2Department of Pathology, Istanbul Goztepe Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Even though hypospadias is one of the most common congenital anomalies, the cause of hypospadias is largely unknown. With regard to molecular biology and microarray technology, it appears that hypospadias is potentially related to disrupted gene expression. Genomic analysis of hypospadiac tissue indicated a potential role for activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the development of this anomaly. This study prospectively examined the expression of ATF3 in tissues from 20 children with hypospadias compared with 26 normal penile skin tissue samples from elective circumcision.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Prepucial tissue was obtained from children who underwent repair of hypospadias for comparison with tissue samples from children who underwent elective circumcision. Skin specimens were evaluated for the expression of ATF3 protein by immunohistochemical staining.
RESULTS
Immunohistochemical staining for ATF3 in samples from children who underwent repair of hypospadias was significantly greater than in samples from children who underwent elective circumcision (80% vs. 11%, respectively; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results indicate that ATF3 is up-regulated in the penile skin tissue of boys with hypospadias, which suggests a role for this transcription factor in the development of this abnormality.

Keyword

Activating transcription factor 3; Estrogens; Genetics; Hypospadias; Urogenital abnormalities

MeSH Terms

Activating Transcription Factor 3
Child
Circumcision, Male
Estrogens
Female
Gene Expression
Humans
Hypospadias
Male
Molecular Biology
Prospective Studies
Skin
Transcription Factors
Urogenital Abnormalities
Activating Transcription Factor 3
Estrogens
Transcription Factors
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