J Korean Med Sci.  2021 Oct;36(38):e265. 10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e265.

Spironolactone Attenuates Methylglyoxal-induced Cellular Dysfunction in MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells

  • 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 3Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Cheongju University, Cheongju, Korea


Methylglyoxal (MG) is associated with the pathogenesis of age- and diabetes-related complications. Spironolactone is a competitive antagonist of aldosterone that is widely employed in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. This study examined the effects of spironolactone on MG-induced cellular dysfunction in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.
MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with spironolactone in the presence of MG. The mitochondrial function, bone formation activity, oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokines, glyoxalase I activity, and glutathione (GSH) were measured.
Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells with spironolactone prevented MG-induced cell death, and improved bone formation activity. Spironolactone reduced MG-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial superoxides, cardiolipin peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines. Pretreatment with spironolactone also increased the level of reduced GSH and the activity of glyoxalase I. MG induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but markers of mitochondrial biogenesis such as mitochondrial membrane potential, adenosine triphosphate, proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α, and nitric oxide were significantly improved by treatment of spironolactone.
Spironolactone could prevent MG-induced cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells by reduction of oxidative stress. The oxidative stress reduction was explained by spironolactone's inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation, restoring mitochondrial dysfunction, and anti-inflammatory effect.


Spironolactone; Osteoblasts; Advanced Glycation End Products; Antioxidants; Mitochondria
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