J Vet Sci.  2020 Sep;21(5):e74. 10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e74.

Improved immune responses and safety of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine containing immunostimulating components in pigs

  • 1Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon 39660, Korea
  • 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea


The quality of a vaccine depends strongly on the effects of the adjuvants applied simultaneously with the antigen in the vaccine. The adjuvants enhance the protective effect of the vaccine against a viral challenge. Conversely, oil-type adjuvants leave oil residue inside the bodies of the injected animals that can produce a local reaction in the muscle. The longterm immunogenicity of mice after vaccination was examined. ISA206 or ISA15 oil adjuvants maintained the best immunity, protective capability, and safety among the oil adjuvants in the experimental group.
This study screened the adjuvant composites aimed at enhancing foot-andmouth disease (FMD) immunity. The C-type lectin or toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist showed the most improved protection rate.
Experimental vaccines were fabricated by mixing various known oil adjuvants and composites that can act as immunogenic adjuvants (gel, saponin, and other components) and examined the enhancement effect on the vaccine.
The water in oil (W/O) and water in oil in water (W/O/W) adjuvants showed better immune effects than the oil in water (O/W) adjuvants, which have a small volume of oil component. The W/O type left the largest amount of oil residue, followed by W/O/W and O/W types. In the mouse model, intramuscular inoculation showed a better protection rate than subcutaneous inoculation. Moreover, the protective effect was particularly weak in the case of inoculation in fatty tissue. The initial immune reaction and persistence of long-term immunity were also confirmed in an immune reaction on pigs.
The new experimental vaccine with immunostimulants produces improved immune responses and safety in pigs than general oil-adjuvanted vaccines.


Foot-and-mouth disease; immunologic adjuvants; safety; immunostimulants
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