J Korean Med Sci.  2020 Mar;35(10):e63. 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e63.

Can Calprotectin Show Subclinical Inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever Patients?

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Sivas, Turkey.
  • 2Department of Internal Medicine – Rheumatology, Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Sivas, Turkey. eminderin@gmail.com
  • 3Department of Biochemistry, Cumhuriyet University, Faculty of Medicine, Sivas, Turkey.

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease that has self-limiting inflammatory attacks during polyserositis. Hepcidin is a protein, and interleukin-6 stimulation increases hepcidin levels. Calprotectin (CLP) is a recently defined cytokine released from monocytes and neutrophils in response to tissue trauma and inflammation. There are studies in the literature showing that it can be used as a biomarker in rheumatic diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we compared the levels of hepcidin and CLP in healthy individuals and FMF patients during an attack-free period and show its relation to genetic mutations.
METHODS
This is a cross-sectional study. Between July 2017 and December 2017, 60 patients diagnosed with FMF an admitted to the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Rheumatology as well as 60 healthy volunteers without any rheumatic, systemic, or metabolic diseases were enrolled in this study. Blood was collected from a peripheral vein to measure serum CLP and hepcidin levels. Blood tests were examined by ELISA; the study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee.
RESULTS
Median serum hepcidin level was 468.1 (210.3-807.8) pg/mL in FMF group and 890.0 (495.0-1,716.9) pg/mL in the healthy control (HC) group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). The median serum levels of CLP in the FMF group were measured as 1,331.4 (969.3-1,584.6 pg/mL and 73.8(45.0-147.9) pg/mL in the HC group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the sensitivity was 66.7% and the specificity was 71.7% at serum hepcidin < 581.25"‰pg/mL (P < 0.05); the sensitivity was 96.7% and specificity was 100% at CLP > 238"‰pg/mL (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum hepcidin and CLP levels in FMF patients with M694V homozygous and M694V heterozygous (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in serum hepcidin levels between FMF patients with and without arthritis, proteinuria, and amyloidosis (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between laboratory findings, gender, age, and serum CLP and hepcidin levels (P > 0.05, r < 0.25).
CONCLUSION
Serum CLP levels in FMF patients during an attack-free period are significantly higher than in the HC groups. Serum hepcidin levels in FMF patients are significantly lower than in the HC group. Low levels of hepcidin may be explained by including FMF patients during an attack-free period in the study. CLP may be an important biomarker in FMF. A better understanding of the role of these biomarkers in the diagnosis of FMF is needed to evaluate the results in a more comprehensive way.

Keyword

FMF; Calprotectin; Hepcidin

MeSH Terms

Amyloidosis
Arthritis
Arthritis, Rheumatoid
Biomarkers
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diagnosis
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Ethics Committees
Familial Mediterranean Fever*
Healthy Volunteers
Hematologic Tests
Hepcidins
Humans
Inflammation*
Interleukin-6
Internal Medicine
Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex*
Metabolic Diseases
Monocytes
Neutrophils
Proteinuria
Rheumatic Diseases
Rheumatology
ROC Curve
Sensitivity and Specificity
Spondylitis, Ankylosing
Veins
Biomarkers
Interleukin-6
Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
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