J Periodontal Implant Sci.  2019 Aug;49(4):258-267. 10.5051/jpis.2019.49.4.258.

Assessment of stem cell viability in the initial healing period in rabbits with a cranial bone defect according to the type and form of scaffold

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Dental Implantology, The Catholic University of Korea Graduate School of Clinical Dental Science, Seoul, Korea. omskim@catholic.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Periodontics, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
  • 4Institute of Foreign Language Studies, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.
  • 5The Faculty of Liberal Arts, Eulji University, Seongnam, Korea.

Abstract

PURPOSE
Increased bone regeneration has been achieved through the use of stem cells in combination with graft material. However, the survival of transplanted stem cells remains a major concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viability of transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) at an early time point (24 hours) based on the type and form of the scaffold used, including type I collagen membrane and synthetic bone.
METHODS
The stem cells were obtained from the periosteum of the otherwise healthy dental patients. Four symmetrical circular defects measuring 6 mm in diameter were made in New Zealand white rabbits using a trephine drill. The defects were grafted with 1) synthetic bone (β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite [β-TCP/HA]) and 1×105 MSCs, 2) collagen membrane and 1×105 MSCs, 3) β-TCP/HA+collagen membrane and 1×105 MSCs, or 4) β-TCP/HA, a chipped collagen membrane and 1×105 MSCs. Cellular viability and the cell migration rate were analyzed.
RESULTS
Cells were easily separated from the collagen membrane, but not from synthetic bone. The number of stem cells attached to synthetic bone in groups 1, 3, and 4 seemed to be similar. Cellular viability in group 2 was significantly higher than in the other groups (P<0.05). The cell migration rate was highest in group 2, but this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
This study showed that stem cells can be applied when a membrane is used as a scaffold under no or minimal pressure. When space maintenance is needed, stem cells can be loaded onto synthetic bone with a chipped membrane to enhance the survival rate.

Keyword

Bone transplantation; Cell survival; Membranes; Stem cells; Tissue scaffolds

MeSH Terms

Bone Regeneration
Bone Transplantation
Cell Movement
Cell Survival
Collagen
Collagen Type I
Humans
Membranes
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Periosteum
Rabbits*
Space Maintenance, Orthodontic
Stem Cells*
Survival Rate
Tissue Scaffolds
Transplants
Collagen
Collagen Type I
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