Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr.  2019 Mar;22(2):107-121. 10.5223/pghn.2019.22.2.107.

Diagnosis and Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Infants and Children: from Guidelines to Clinical Practice

Affiliations
  • 1KidZ Health Castle, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. Yvan.Vandenplas@uzbrussel.be
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Abstract

The diagnosis and management of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and GER disease (GERD) in infants and children remains a challenge. Published guidelines and position papers, along with Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database were reviewed and summarized with the intent to propose a practical approach and management of GER and GERD for healthcare providers and to standardize and improve the quality of care for infants and children. For this purpose, 2 algorithms were developed, 1 for infants < 12 months of age and the other for older children. None of the signs and symptoms of GER and GERD are specific and there is no gold standard diagnostic test or tool. Nutritional management is recommended as a first-line approach in infants, while in children, a therapeutic trial with antacid medication is advised for early management. The practical recommendations from this review are intended to optimize the management of GER in infants and older children and reduce the number of investigations and inappropriate use of medication.

Keyword

Gastro-esophageal reflux; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Esophagitis; Endoscopy; Impedance; Proton pump inhibitors; pH

MeSH Terms

Child*
Diagnosis*
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Electric Impedance
Endoscopy
Esophagitis
Gastroesophageal Reflux*
Health Personnel
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Infant*
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Proton Pump Inhibitors
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