Korean J Pediatr.  2008 Apr;51(4):420-425. 10.3345/kjp.2008.51.4.420.

Clinical review of acute seizures among children who visited the emergency room in Masan Samsung hospital from 2004 to 2006

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Masan Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Masan, South Korea. ljh3643@hanmail.net

Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute childhood seizures, one of the most important causes of emergency room visits, to provide appropriate medical services.
METHODS
We reviewed the medical records of 433 (4.6%) pediatric patients with acute seizures that visited the emergency room at Masan Samsung hospital from 2004 to 2006.
RESULTS
The male to female ratio was 1.4:1 and the mean age was 40.9+/-34.9 months range. The order of geographical distribution was Masan, Changwon, Haman, and others. Fever was present in 40.6% of patients; December (14.8%) was the most frequent month for visits and generalized tonic clonic seizures (62.7%) were the most common type of seizure. The average frequency and duration of the seizure was 1.5+/-1.0 and 6.7+/-13.2 minutes respectively. Febrile seizures were present in 69.7% of patients and afebrile seizures in 30.3%. The causes of the febrile seizures were acute pharyngotonsillitis (44.6%), acute bronchitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and unknown origin, in order of frequency. The most common cause of an afebrile seizure was epilepsy (71.5%) followed by a benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (BCwMG), sequela of a perinatal brain injury or brain malformation, and acute CNS infection. Evaluation of the causes of an acute seizure according to age showed that febrile seizures, epilepsy, and the sequela of perinatal brain injuries were more common between 2 and 6 years of age and epilepsy, febrile seizures and acute CNS infection, in order of frequency, were common between 6 and 15 years of age. Many patients, 49.4%, were discharged without admission.
CONCLUSION
The common characteristics of pediatric patients presenting to the emergency room were male gender, an age between 2-6 years, presenting during the month of December, with generalized tonic clonic seizures due to acute pharyngitis. The most common presentation for the group less than 6 years of age was a febrile seizure and in the group more than 6 years of age, it was epilepsy. In many cases, the seizures stopped by the time the family presented to the emergency room.

Keyword

Acute seizure; Emergency room; Febrile seizure

MeSH Terms

Brain
Brain Injuries
Bronchitis
Child
Emergencies
Epilepsy
Female
Fever
Gastroenteritis
Humans
Male
Medical Records
Nitroimidazoles
Pharyngitis
Pneumonia
Seizures
Seizures, Febrile
Sulfonamides
Urinary Tract Infections
Nitroimidazoles
Sulfonamides
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