Korean J Community Nutr.  2014 Apr;19(2):122-132. 10.5720/kjcn.2014.19.2.122.

Associations between Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Consumption Frequencies of Vitamin D Rich Foods in Korean Adults and Older Adults

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Clinical Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 136-714, Korea.
  • 2Department of Food and Nutrition, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea.
  • 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea.
  • 4Department of Home Economics Education, Pai Chai University, Daejeon 302-735, Korea.
  • 5Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women's University, Seoul 136-714, Korea. yjyang@dongduk.ac.kr

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the vitamin D status and to determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and consumption frequencies of vitamin D rich foods in Korean adults and older adults.
METHODS
Subjects were 10,374 adults and 2,792 older adults participating in the 2008-2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Consumption frequencies of vitamin D rich foods were estimated by using a qualitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Eleven food items such as beef, egg, mackerel, tuna, yellow corvina, pollack, anchovy, mushroom, milk, yogurt, and ice cream were selected as vitamin D rich foods based on previous research.
RESULTS
The proportions of deficiency (< 12 ng/mL), inadequacy (12-20 ng/mL) and sufficiency (> or = 20 ng/mL) of serum 25(OH)D concentrations from June to November and December to May in adults were 8.8%, 42.3%, 48.8%, and 28.2%, 52.8%, 19.1%, respectively. The proportions of deficiency, inadequacy and sufficiency of serum 25 (OH)D concentrations from June to November and December to May in older adults were 10.1%, 32.4%, 57.5%, and 24.1%, 45.4%, 30.5%, respectively. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations in adults were positively related to the consumption frequencies of mackerel, anchovy, all fish, milk and milk.dairy products. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations in older adults were positively related to the consumption frequencies of yellow corvina and negatively related to the consumption frequencies of ice cream.
CONCLUSIONS
Our results suggest that Korean adults were more deficient in serum 25(OH)D concentrations than older adults. The consumption of vitamin D rich foods may affect vitamin D status in Korean adults. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

Keyword

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Vitamin D Rich Foods; Adults; Older Adults; KNHANES

MeSH Terms

Adult*
Agaricales
Humans
Ice Cream
Korea
Milk
Nutrition Surveys
Ovum
Perciformes
Surveys and Questionnaires
Tuna
Vitamin D*
Yogurt
Vitamin D
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