Biomol Ther.  2014 Nov;22(6):540-546. 10.4062/biomolther.2014.081.

Novel Suppressive Effects of Ketotifen on Migration and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 Cancer Cells

  • 1BK21PLUS R-FIND Team, College of Pharmacy, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715, Republic of Korea.
  • 2National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769, Republic of Korea.


The high mortality rates associated with cancer reflect the metastatic spread of tumor cells from the site of their origin. Metastasis, in fact, is the cause of 90% of cancer deaths. Therefore, considerable effort is being made to inhibit metastasis. In the present study, we screened ketotifen for anti-migratory and anti-invasive activities against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cancer cells. Cancer cell migration and invasion were measured using multi-well chambers. Additionally, western blots were used to examine the effects of ketotifen on the expressions of CDC42, Rho, Rac, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). The results showed that ketotifen dose-dependently suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cells. Ketotifen also suppressed the expressions of CDC42, Rac, and Rho, which, significantly, are involved in MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cancer cell migration. Moreover, ketotifen suppressed the expression and activity of MMP-9, which is involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix leading to invasion. The overall data suggested that ketotifen suppresses the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and HT-1080 cancer cells via inhibition of CDC42, Rac, Rho, and MMP-9 expression.


Ketotifen; Migration; Invasion; MDA-MB-231; HT-1080

MeSH Terms

Blotting, Western
Breast Neoplasms
Cell Movement
Extracellular Matrix
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Neoplasm Metastasis
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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