Tuberc Respir Dis.  2000 Aug;49(2):198-206. 10.4046/trd.2000.49.2.198.

The Diagnosis of pneumoniae following bone marrow transplantation by bronchoscopy

Abstract

BACKGROUND
Pulmonary complications following bonemarrow transplantation(BMT) are common and associated with a high mortality rate, We investigated the yield, safety, and impact of fiberoptic bronchoscopy(FOB) for diagnosis of postBMT pneumoniae.
METHODS
From May 1997 to April 2000, 56 FOBs were performed in 52 post BMT patients for clinical pneumoniae. BMT patients with repiratory symptoms and/or pulmonary infiltrates had a thoracic HRCT(high resolution computed tomography) and bronchoscopic examination including BAL(bronchoalveolar lavage), TBLB(transbronchial lung biopsy), PSB(protected specimen brush).
RESULTS
The characteristics of the subjects were as follows:37 males, 15 females, mean age of 31.3 years(17-45), 35 sibling donor allogenic BMTs, 15 nonrelated donor allogenic BMTs, and 2 autologous BMTs. Fiftynine percent of FOBs (33 FOBs, 31 patients) were diagnostic. Isolated pathogens included the following:12 cytomegalovirus(CMV) (21.4%), 7 pneumocystis carinii(PC) (12.5%), 11 CMV with PC (19.6%), 2 Mycobacaterium tuberculosis (3.6%), and 1 streptococcus (1.8%). Most of the radiographic findings were diffuse interstitial lesions. CMV pneumoniae had mainly diffuse interstitial nodular lesion, and PC pneumoniae had diffuse, interstitial ground glass opacity(GGO). When CMV was accompanied by PC, a combined pattern of nodular and GGO was present. Of the 56 cases(23.2%), 13 died of CMV pneumoniae(n=2), PCP(n=2), mixed infection with CMV and PC(n=3), underlying GVHD(n=1), underlying leukemia progression(n=1), or respiratory failure of unknown origin(n=4). There was no major complication by bronchoscopy. Only 3 cases developed minor bleedig and 1 episode temporary hypoxemia.
CONCLUSION
Based on our findings, CMV and PC are the major causes of postBMT pneumoniae. In addition, BAL can be considered a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of pulmonary complications after BMT.

Keyword

Bronchoscopy; Bone marrow transplantation; Pneumoniae
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