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Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Pneumocystis Pneumonia

Tasaka S

In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a wellk-nown opportunistic infection and its management has been established. However, PCP is an emerging threat to immunocompromised patients...
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Particulate-Matter Related Respiratory Diseases

Kyung SY, Jeong SH

Particulate matter (PM) is suspended dust that has a diameter of
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High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy Can Be Effective for Patients in Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure with Hypercapnia: a Retrospective, Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study

Bae S, Han M, Kim C, Lee H, Ahn JJ, Kim JH, Kang BJ

BACKGROUND: Usually, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy is indicated for de novo acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF). Although only a few researches have examined the effectiveness of HFNC therapy for...
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Spinal anesthesia and postoperative epidural analgesia in a patient with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome: a case report

Choi Y, Lee S, Lee J, Woo S

BACKGROUND: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder characterized by alveolar hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation. Patients with CCHS have adequate ventilation while awake but exhibit hypoventilation while asleep....
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Dexmedetomidine: present and future directions

Lee S

Dexmedetomidine is a potent, highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, with sedative, analgesic, anxiolytic, sympatholytic, and opioid-sparing properties. Dexmedetomidine induces a unique sedative response, which shows an easy transition from sleep...
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Reduction of PaCOâ‚‚ by high-flow nasal cannula in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure patients receiving conventional oxygen therapy

Lee HW, Choi SM, Lee J, Park YS, Lee CH, Yoo CG, Kim YW, Han SK, Lee SM

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) could help to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from anatomical dead spaces, but evidence to support that is lacking. The...
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Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain

Yoon DU, Kang UG

Opioids are effective analgesics, but they are often difficult to use properly, due mainly to adverse events, such as constipation, respiratory depression, addiction, tolerance, and opioid induced hyperalgesia. In the...
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Anesthetic management in corticobasal degeneration with central sleep apnea: A case report

Shionoya Y, Nakamura K, Sunada K

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease characterized by dystonia, cognitive deficits, and an asymmetric akinetic-rigid syndrome. Little information is available regarding anesthetic management for CBD patients. Our patient...
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A case of FLNA gene mutation with respiratory insufficiency and periventricular heterotopia

Park H, Park MS, Ki CS, Cho J, Lee J, Kim J, Ahn K

Filamin A is an actin-binding protein and, in humans, is encoded by FLNA gene in the long arm of X chromosome. Filamin A plays a role in the formation of...
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Current Status of Noninvasive Ventilation Use in Korean Intensive Care Units: A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study

Nam H, Cho JH, Choi EY, Chang Y, Choi WI, Hwang JJ, Moon JY, Lee K, Kim SW, Kang HK, Sim YS, Park TS, Park SY, Park S, on behalf of Korean NIV Study Group

BACKGROUND: Data on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) use in intensive care units (ICUs) are very limited in South Korea. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in 20 ICUs of university-affiliated hospitals...
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History of Pulmonary Surfactant Replacement Therapy for Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Korea

Bae CW, Kim CY, Chung SH, Choi YS

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a disease that is unique to newborn infants. It is caused by a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant (PS), which is usually ready to be...
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A Study of Predicting the Severity Following Glufosinate Ammonium Containing Herbicide Poisoning Experienced in Single Emergency Medical Institution

Lee DS, Choi KH

PURPOSE: Owing to the increased agricultural use of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA), the incidence of GLA poisoning has recently increased. Therefore, we investigated the possible predictive factors associated with...
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Lethal Cardiac Complications in a Long-Term Survivor of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type 1

Cho MJ

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and motor nuclei in the lower brainstem, resulting in...
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The Effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine in Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy Under Monitored Anesthesia Care

Kim KW, Park JH, Kim S, Ahn EJ, Kim HJ, Choi HR, Chang YG, Bang SR

OBJECTIVES: Vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB) is a widely used technique for the diagnosis of breast lesions. It is carried out with local anesthesia, but procedural pain and stress are still...
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Sedation with dexmedetomidine in elderly patients during dental surgery: a retrospective case series

Seto M, Kita R, Kondo S

OBJECTIVES: The number of elderly patients with systemic basal disease requiring invasive dental treatment has increased. Appropriate prediction of surgical invasiveness and combined use of psychosedation are thought to contribute...
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Two Cases of Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia in Cancer Patients Treated with Opioids for Pain Management

Hong S, Kwon JH, Han SJ

Opioids are important drugs for the management of severe cancer pain without a ceiling effect. However, opioid administration leads to dose-limiting complications including drowsiness, hallucinations, delirium, respiratory depression, cognitive impairment,...
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Sedation Strategies for Procedures Outside the Operating Room

Jo YY, Kwak HJ

With the rapid development of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed outside the operating room (OR), the need for appropriate sedation care has emerged in importance to ensure the safety and...
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A Family of Congenital Fiber Type Disproportion with Mutation in Tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) Gene Presenting as Altered Mentality with Respiratory Distress

Namgung DW, Hong JM, Lee JH, Park HJ, Choi YC

Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) has been related with mutations in ACTA1, SEPN1, RYR1 and tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) genes. Particularly, TPM3 mutation was identified as one of the most frequent...
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Oral manifestation and root canal therapy of the patient with mucopolysaccharidosis

Yoon JH, Lee HI, Jang JH, Choi SH, Chang HS, Hwang YC, Hwang IN, Lee BN, Oh WM

Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency in enzymes that participate in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as heparin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Left untreated,...
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Fatal pulmonary aspiration during balanced sedation with dexmedetomidine and midazolam: A case report

Park JH, Kim SY, Kwon MA

Recently, balanced sedation has commonly been used during procedural sedation. Dexmedetomidine is known for its relative safety to cause “conscious sedation” with little respiratory depression but has some limitations such...
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