Dement Neurocogn Disord.  2012 Dec;11(4):111-117. 10.12779/dnd.2012.11.4.111.

Vitamin D Deficiency and Cognitive Dysfunction

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Neurology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. alzdoc@kuh.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

Vitamin D is not a true vitamin but a fat-soluble steroid prohormone that has long been known for its important and diverse role in the biological system. Many studies have revealed that vitamin D deficiency is linked with an increased risk of autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type II diabetes and infectious diseases. Vitamin D3 is transformed to its active form, 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, through metabolisms in the liver and kidney. 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 interacts with its vitamin D receptor, and the brain is now known to have vitamin D receptors and 1alpha-hydroxylase. Several lines of evidences suggest vitamin D deficiency is associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, however, its position in cognitive function is still in its infancy. Vitamin D deficiency is a reversible condition and can be easily treated with supplements. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in patients with neurodegenerative conditions are needed.

Keyword

Vitamin D deficiency; Cognition; Alzheimer's disease (AD)

MeSH Terms

Autoimmune Diseases
Brain
Cardiovascular Diseases
Cholecalciferol
Cognition
Communicable Diseases
Dementia
Humans
Kidney
Liver
Receptors, Calcitriol
Vitamin D
Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamins
Cholecalciferol
Receptors, Calcitriol
Vitamin D
Vitamins
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