J Bacteriol Virol.  2009 Sep;39(3):145-157. 10.4167/jbv.2009.39.3.145.

Activation of Innate Immune System During Viral Infection: Role of Pattern-recognition Receptors (PRRs) in Viral Infection

  • 1Department of Microbiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ykkim@amc.seoul.kr
  • 2Research Institute for Biomacromolecules, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.


Innate immunity and adaptive immunity are two major immune responses against pathogens. Innate immunity is responsible for the immediate immune response to pathogens. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) play an important role in innate immune response. PRRs recognize regular patterns of molecule structure known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Among the PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factors (DAI) display key roles in response to viral infections. This article reviews how viral infections activate PRR-PAMP signal pathways and how viruses evade immune responses elicited by PRR signal pathways.


Innate immunity; Viral infection; Toll-like receptor; RIG-I-like receptor; PAMP

MeSH Terms

Adaptive Immunity
Immune System
Immunity, Innate
Interferon Regulatory Factors
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Signal Transduction
Toll-Like Receptors
Interferon Regulatory Factors
Toll-Like Receptors
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