Precis Future Med.  2021 Sep;5(3):106-116. 10.23838/pfm.2021.00100.

Monogenic diabetes mellitus and clinical implications of genetic diagnosis

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Korea
  • 2Department of Pediatrics, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, Korea


Monogenic diabetes mellitus, which is diabetes caused by a defect in a single gene that is associated with β cell function or insulin action, accounts for 1% to 6% of all pediatric diabetes cases. Accurate diagnosis is important, as the effective treatment differs according to genetic etiology in some types of monogenic diabetes: high-dose sulfonylurea treatment in neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations in KCNJ11 or ABCC8; low-dose sulfonylurea treatment in HNF1A/HNF4A-diabetes; and no treatment in GCK diabetes. Monogenic diabetes should be suspected by clinicians for certain combinations of clinical features and laboratory results, and approximately 80% of monogenic diabetes cases are misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Here, we outline the types of monogenic diabetes and the clinical implications of genetic diagnosis.


Diabetes mellitus; Diagnosis; Genetics
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