Yonsei Med J.  2021 Jun;62(6):563-567. 10.3349/ymj.2021.62.6.563.

Fulminant Disseminating Fatal Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: The First Case Report in an Immunocompetent Patient in South Korea

Affiliations
  • 1Departments of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea
  • 2Departments of Neurosurgery, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea
  • 3Departments of Pathology, Eulji University Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract

Central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoeba are very rare, but often fatal. The typical image findings of amebic meningoencephalitis are non-specific, showing ring-like enhancement. We report the first case of fulminant disseminating fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in an immunocompetent patient in South Korea. Our case exhibited two interesting features: one was the unusual clinical course and the other was additional image findings. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a rim-enhancing lesion with intralesional blooming dark signal intensity on susceptibility weighted imaging and low signal intensity on diffusion weighted images and on apparent diffusion coefficient maps. Differential diagnosis was started from a tumor or non-tumorous lesion, and diagnosis was difficult due to the rarity of the disease. Following the clinical and diagnostic courses of our case, we recommend inspecting image findings of granulomatous amebic encephalitis for early diagnosis.

Keyword

Encephalitis; amoeba; Balamuthia mandrillaris
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