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Fulminant Course of Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy Followed by Serial MRI: A Case Report

Lee JY, Lee KM, Yeon EK, Lee EH, Kim EJ

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare but distinctive type of influenza-associated encephalopathy characterized by symmetric multiple lesions with an invariable thalamic involvement. Although the exact pathogenesis of ANE remains...
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Clinical Outcomes of Japanese Encephalitis after Combination Treatment of Immunoglobulin, Ribavirin, and Interferon-α2b

Son H, Sunwoo JS, Lee SK, Chu K, Lee ST

Background and Purpose Japanese encephalitis (JE) is caused by the JE virus of the Flaviviridae family and is spread by mosquito bites, and no specific antiviral treatment for it exists....
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Fulminant Disseminating Fatal Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: The First Case Report in an Immunocompetent Patient in South Korea

Lee JY, Yu IK, Kim SM, Kim JH, Kim HY

Central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoeba are very rare, but often fatal. The typical image findings of amebic meningoencephalitis are non-specific, showing ring-like enhancement. We report the first...
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Refractory brainstem encephalitis mimicking progressive cerebral infarction: infliximab and methotrexate as a salvage immunotherapy

Ahn SH, Roh J, Woo KN, Kim HS, Park MG, Park KP, Baik SK, Shin JH

Background: Brainstem encephalitis is a rare, severe, and potentially life-threatening inflammation of the central nervous system, exhibiting various treatment responses and outcomes owing to multiple etiologies. Case Report: We describe...
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Determining the Utility of the Guillain-Barré Syndrome Classification Criteria

Tan CY, Razali SNO, Goh KJ, Shahrizaila N

Background and Purpose Several variants of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) exist, but their frequencies vary in different populations and do not always meet the inclusion criteria...
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Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Seronegative Pediatric Autoimmune Encephalitis

Lee S, Kim HD, Lee JS, Kang HC, Kim SH

Background and Purpose New diagnostic criteria for pediatric autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) have been introduced recently. A substantial proportion of cases of pediatric AIE are diagnosed as seronegative based on these...
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Echovirus-7 Infection in Children with Unusual Severe Manifestation: A Case Report

Pudjiadi AH, Antonjaya U, Myint KS, Alatas FS

We report a rare laboratory-confirmed, clinical case of Echovirus-7 infection in an immunocompetent child with central nervous system and systemic manifestation. Echovirus infection is usually mild, however in this case...
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Leptomeningeal Enhancement without Thalamic Involvement as an Initial Manifestation of Japanese Encephalitis: A Case Report

Woo SH, Lee HJ, Kang Y

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a common infection caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus in Southeast Asia, which is transmitted to humans through Culex mosquitoes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used...
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Paraneoplastic Encephalitis Associated with Locally Advanced Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Breast Cancer

Shay RC, Diamond JR, Kagihara JA, Sams SB

Paraneoplastic neurologic diseases (PND) are rare but can occur in patients with common malignancies including breast cancer. In patients with hormone receptor (HR)-negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive...
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Autoimmune encephalitis and epilepsy: evolving definition and clinical spectrum

Seo JH, Lee YJ, Lee KH, Gireesh E, Skinner H, Westerveld M

Advances in autoimmune encephalitis studies in the past 10 years have led to the identification of new syndromes and biomarkers that have transformed the diagnostic approach to the disorder. The...
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Genotype-specific neutralizing antibody titers against Japanese encephalitis virus genotypes 1 and 3 in horses immunized with a genotype 3 vaccine

Kim HH, Yang DK, Ji M, Lee SK, Hyun BH

Purpose: Japanese encephalitis is one of the most important mosquito-borne and zoonotic diseases in Asia and the Pacific region. Although the dominant Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype has shifted from...
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Identification of Medium-Length Antineurofilament Autoantibodies in Patients with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis

Wang S, Xu C, Sun X, Zhou Y, Shu Y, Xia S, Lu Z, Qiu W, Zhong X, Peng L

Background and Purpose: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a severe central nervous system disorder mediated by NMDAR antibodies that damages neurons. We investigated the correlation between cytoskeletal autoantibodies and the...
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Analysis of Risk Factors for a Poor Prognosis in Patients with Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis and Construction of a Prognostic Composite Score

Mo Y, Wang L, Zhu L, Li F, Yu G, Luo Y, Ni M

Background and Purpose: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is the most-common form of autoimmune encephalitis, but its early diagnosis is challenging. This study aimed to identify the risk factors for a poor...
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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: a Rare Complication of Ovarian Teratoma

Lee CH, Kim EJ, Lee MH, Yim GW, Kim KJ, Kim KK, Kim EJ, Roh JW

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a potentially life-threatening but reversible autoimmune disorder characterized by psychiatric symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, speech dysfunction, seizures, movement disorder, decreased level of consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction...
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Hashimoto's Encephalopathy with Unusual MRI Findings Mimicking Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Suh HB, Kim H, Kim HJ

Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by a high serum concentration of antithyroid antibodies without evidence of cerebral disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in HE patients...
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Anti-LGI1 Antibody Encephalitis Mimicking Jumping Stump Syndrome

Woo MH, Choi JW, Chung D, Shin JW

Jumping stump syndrome is considered to be a peripherally induced movement disorder due to damage to peripheral nerves leading to dystonia or myoclonus. Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 antibody (anti-LGI 1 Ab)...
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Anti-Yo-associated autoimmune encephalitis after colon cancer treatment

Jung NY, Woo KN, Cho JW, Kim HW

Background: Anti-Yo antibodies are classically associated with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in ovarian and breast cancers and are rarely seen in colon cancer. Anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic autoimmune encephalitis in colon cancer is...
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Enterovirus 71 Encephalitis Responding to Intravenous Immunoglobulin

Lee MA, Lee C, Choi KE, Heo YJ, Na S

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Anti-LGI-1 Encephalitis with Worsening Symptoms Associated with Hyponatremia

Kim MJ, Lee JS

Anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI-1) encephalitis is clinically characterized by subacute cognitive decline and frequent seizures including fasciobrachial dystonic seizures. A 67-year-old man visited the emergency department due to the recurrent...
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Anti-LGI1 Antibody Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Choi S, Kim DH, Lee HJ, Shin DJ

Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 (LGI1) antibody has been known as the most common antibody in autoimmune limbic encephalitis. We report a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with repetitive memory...
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