Korean J Radiol.  2021 Jan;22(1):118-130. 10.3348/kjr.2020.0016.

Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Post-Concussion Syndrome: Evaluation with Region-Based Quantification of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging Parameters Using Automatic Whole-Brain Segmentation

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 2Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
  • 3School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
  • 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
  • 6National Traffic Injury Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangpyeong, Korea
  • 7Neuroscience Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Abstract


Objective
This study aimed to investigate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients with post-concussion syndrome (PCS) using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and automatic whole brain segmentation.
Materials and Methods
Forty-two consecutive mTBI patients with PCS who had undergone post-traumatic MR imaging, including DCE MR imaging, between October 2016 and April 2018, and 29 controls with DCE MR imaging were included in this retrospective study. After performing three-dimensional T1-based brain segmentation with FreeSurfer software (Laboratory for Computational Neuroimaging), the mean Ktrans and vp from DCE MR imaging (derived using the Patlak model and extended Tofts and Kermode model) were analyzed in the bilateral cerebral/cerebellar cortex, bilateral cerebral/cerebellar white matter (WM), and brainstem. Ktrans values of the mTBI patients and controls were calculated using both models to identify the model that better reflected the increased permeability owing to mTBI (tendency toward higher Ktrans values in mTBI patients than in controls). The Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman rank correlation test were performed to compare the mean Ktrans and vp between the two groups and correlate Ktrans and vp with neuropsychological tests for mTBI patients.
Results
Increased permeability owing to mTBI was observed in the Patlak model but not in the extended Tofts and Kermode model. In the Patlak model, the mean Ktrans in the bilateral cerebral cortex was significantly higher in mTBI patients than in controls (p = 0.042). The mean vp values in the bilateral cerebellar WM and brainstem were significantly lower in mTBI patients than in controls (p = 0.009 and p = 0.011, respectively). The mean Ktrans of the bilateral cerebral cortex was significantly higher in patients with atypical performance in the auditory continuous performance test (commission errors) than in average or good performers (p = 0.041).
Conclusion
BBB disruption, as reflected by the increased Ktrans and decreased vp values from the Patlak model, was observed throughout the bilateral cerebral cortex, bilateral cerebellar WM, and brainstem in mTBI patients with PCS.

Keyword

Blood-brain barrier; Magnetic resonance imaging; Perfusion; Permeability; Post-concussion syndrome
Full Text Links
  • KJR
Actions
Cited
CITED
export Copy
Close
Share
  • Twitter
  • Facebook
Similar articles
Copyright © 2021 by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. All rights reserved.     E-mail: koreamed@kamje.or.kr