Clin Pediatr Hematol Oncol.  2019 Oct;26(2):99-104. 10.15264/cpho.2019.26.2.99.

A Case of Recurrent Rosai-Dorfman Disease Successfully Treated with 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (Cladribine)

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea. pedpje@ajou.ac.kr
  • 2Department of Pathology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Abstract

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), is a rare histiocytic disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients with RDD have spontaneous remission, but in some patients, the disease recurs after complete remission and may not respond to general treatment. Some patients with RDD involving the extranodal system can have serious symptoms such as vital organ dysfunction due to mass effects, neurological symptoms caused by intracranial involvement, and respiratory distress with airway involvement. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl with severe dyspnea due to refractory extranodal RDD that caused progressive upper airway obstruction. She was admitted because of nasal congestion and persistent cervical lymphadenopathy, and diagnosed as having RDD by cervical lymph node incisional biopsy. The initial prednisone treatment did not improve her symptoms. The following contrast-enhanced neck computed tomography revealed a newly developed airway mass protruding in the upper trachea. After 8 weeks of chemotherapy with vinblastine, methotrexate, and prednisone, complete remission was attained. Seven months after chemotherapy cessation, the disease recurred, and chemotherapy with vincristine, cytarabine, and prednisone was resumed. Despite the chemotherapy and emergency radiotherapy, no improvement was observed in the cervical lymph node enlargement and airway obstructive symptom due to the upper tracheal mass. 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine) therapy was initiated, and the patient got complete remission after 6 cycles of the cladribine treatment and maintained no evidence of disease for 2 years. We suggest that cladribine is an effective treatment option for recurrent/refractory RDD.

Keyword

Rosai-Dorfman disease; 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine; Refractory; Recurrent

MeSH Terms

Airway Obstruction
Biopsy
Child
Cladribine*
Cytarabine
Drug Therapy
Dyspnea
Emergencies
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Female
Histiocytosis, Sinus*
Humans
Lymph Nodes
Lymphatic Diseases
Methotrexate
Neck
Prednisone
Radiotherapy
Remission, Spontaneous
Trachea
Vinblastine
Vincristine
Cladribine
Cytarabine
Estrogens, Conjugated (USP)
Methotrexate
Prednisone
Vinblastine
Vincristine
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