J Vet Sci.  2019 Nov;20(6):e61. 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e61.

Evaluation of the immunobiological effects of a regenerative far-infrared heating system in pigs

  • 1Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. yoohs@snu.ac.kr
  • 2BK21 PLUS and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.
  • 3BioMax/N-Bio Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.


Thermal conditions are an important environmental factor in maintaining healthy pigs because they affect feed intake, growth efficiency, reproduction and immune responses in pigs. RAVI, a regenerative far-infrared heating system, can effect pig production by emitting an optimal far-infrared wavelength. Far-infrared radiation has been reported to increase microvascular dilation and vascular flow volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunobiological differences between pigs raised with the RAVI system and the gasoline heater system. Twenty-six-week-old weaned pigs were raised in two rooms that were equipped with a RAVI system or a gasoline heater for 8 weeks. A porcine atrophic rhinitis vaccine was administered after two weeks and transcriptome analysis in whole blood were analyzed at 2-week intervals. Signaling pathway analyses of the RAVI group at 8 weeks showed the activation of pathways related to nitric oxide (NO) production. This suggests that the application of RAVI might induce the production of NO and iNOS, which are important for increasing the immune activity. Similar to the result of microarray, phenotypic changes were also observed at a later period of the experiment. The increase in body weight in the RAVI group was significantly higher than the gasoline heater group at 8 weeks. The antibody titer against the vaccine in the RAVI group was also higher than that the gasoline heater group at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. This evaluation of the use of a far-infrared heating system with pigs will be helpful for applications in the pig farm industry and pig welfare.


Far-infrared ray; pig; microarray; nitric oxide; immunobiological effect

MeSH Terms

Body Weight
Gene Expression Profiling
Hot Temperature*
Nitric Oxide
Rhinitis, Atrophic
Nitric Oxide
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