J Vet Sci.  2019 Nov;20(6):e58. 10.4142/jvs.2019.20.e58.

Immunogenicity and efficacy of Schmallenberg virus envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. jricht@ksu.edu
  • 2Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA.

Abstract

The Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an orthobunyavirus that causes abortions, stillbirths, and congenital defects in pregnant sheep and cattle. Inactivated or live attenuated vaccines have been developed in endemic countries, but there is still interest in the development of SBV vaccines that would allow Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). Therefore, an attempt was made to develop novel DIVA-compatible SBV vaccines using SBV glycoproteins expressed in baculovirus. All vaccines and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) controls were prepared with adjuvant and administered subcutaneously to cattle at 6 month of age. The first trial included 2 groups of animals vaccinated with either carboxyl-terminus glycoprotein (Gc) or PBS and boosted after 2 weeks. In the second trial, 3 groups of cattle were administered either Gc, Gc and amino-terminus glycoprotein (Gn), or PBS with a booster vaccination after 3 weeks. The animals were challenged with SBV 9 days after the booster vaccination in the first study, and 3 weeks after the booster vaccination in the second study. Using a SBV Gc-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, antibodies were first detected in serum samples 14 days after the first vaccination in both trials, and peaked on days 7 and 9 after the booster in the first and second trials, respectively. Low titers of neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum from only 3/6 and 2/4 animals in the first and second trial, respectively, at 14 days after the first vaccination. The titers increased 2 to 3-fold after the booster vaccination. SBV-specific RNA was detected in the serum and selective tissues in all animals after SBV challenge independent of vaccination status. The SBV candidate vaccines neither prevented viremia nor conferred protection against SBV infection.

Keyword

Schmallenberg virus; subunit vaccine; cattle

MeSH Terms

Animals
Antibodies
Antibodies, Neutralizing
Baculoviridae
Cattle
Congenital Abnormalities
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Glycoproteins*
Orthobunyavirus
RNA
Sheep
Stillbirth
Vaccination
Vaccines
Vaccines, Attenuated
Vaccines, Subunit*
Viremia
Antibodies
Antibodies, Neutralizing
Glycoproteins
RNA
Vaccines
Vaccines, Attenuated
Vaccines, Subunit
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