Korean J Intern Med.  2019 May;34(3):492-503. 10.3904/kjim.2018.366.

Molecular targeted therapies for microscopic polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Affiliations
  • 1Division of Epidemiology and Pharmacoepidemiology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan. harigai.masayoshi@twmu.ac.jp
  • 2Department of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.
  • 3Department of Rheumatology, Ome Municipal General Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

Clinical trials and observational studies have established cyclophosphamide (CY) or rituximab plus glucocorticoid (GC) as standard remission induction therapies in patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). However, because these regimens are associated with serious adverse drug reactions, the development of drugs with novel mechanisms of actions are needed. Progress in basic and clinical research has identified novel candidate targeting molecules, including B-cell activating factor (BAF), C5a receptor, and interleukin-6. The combination of rituximab and BAF blockade in patients with MPA and GPA is under investigation in an effort to strike a better benefit-risk balance. Phase II clinical trials of avacopan (CCX168), an orally administered C5a receptor antagonist, have suggested a reduction in the dosage of concomitant GC or the replacement of GC in patients with MPA and GPA. The results from a currently ongoing phase III trial are awaited. Anecdotal case reports and an open-label pilot study have indicated the effectiveness of tocilizumab in patients with MPA and GPA. A randomized clinical trial comparing tocilizumab and intravenous CY in combination with GC is currently in progress. Molecular targeted therapy is expected to transform the treatment strategy for MPA and GPA to allow GC-free or at least less GC-dependent forms of therapy.

Keyword

Microscopic polyangiitis; Granulomatosis with polyangiitis; Molecular targeted therapy; Interleukin-6; Complement C5a

MeSH Terms

B-Cell Activating Factor
Complement C5a
Cyclophosphamide
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis*
Humans
Interleukin-6
Microscopic Polyangiitis*
Molecular Targeted Therapy*
Pilot Projects
Remission Induction
Rituximab
Strikes, Employee
B-Cell Activating Factor
Complement C5a
Cyclophosphamide
Interleukin-6
Rituximab
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