Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol.  2019 Feb;12(1):18-26. 10.21053/ceo.2017.01669.

Cochlear Damage Caused by the Striking Noise of Titanium Head Golf Driver

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Brain Research Institute, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.
  • 2Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Wonkwang University College of Medicine, Iksan, Korea.
  • 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea.
  • 4Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. yhkiment@gmail.com

Abstract


OBJECTIVES
.: To investigate how mouse cochleae are affected by the striking noise of titanium head golf driver.
METHODS
.: Thirty-two BALB/c mice (20-22 g) with normal hearing were used. The impact acoustic stimulus generated by the striking of titanium golf driver head was centered around 4.5 kHz with 120.5 dB sound pressure level. The recorded impact noise was provided to mice in two ways with the same exposure time of 288 seconds: 1,440 repetitions and an impact duration of 0.2 seconds for 2 hours (repetitive noise) or serially connected impact noise for 288 seconds (continuous noise). Auditory brainstem responses were measured at baseline, day 7, and day 14 after exposure. The mice were then sacrificed for histology.
RESULTS
.: Both groups showed statistically significant threshold shifts immediately after noise exposure. Mice in the continuous exposure group, except for those exposed to 32 kHz noise, recovered from threshold shifts 1-2 weeks after noise exposure. However, in the repetitive exposure group, threshold shifts remained for 2 weeks after exposure. The repetitive exposure group had greater hair cell damage than did the continuous exposure group. Structural changes in the stria vascularis were observed in the repetitive exposure group.
CONCLUSION
.: Overexposure to impact noise caused by hitting of titanium head golf driver may be hazardous to the cochlea, and repetitive exposure may induce greater damage than continuous exposure.

Keyword

Hearing Loss; Noise-Induced; Titanium; Golf; Cochlea

MeSH Terms

Acoustics
Animals
Cochlea
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Golf*
Hair
Head*
Hearing
Hearing Loss
Mice
Noise*
Stria Vascularis
Strikes, Employee*
Titanium*
Titanium
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