Yeungnam Univ J Med.  2018 Dec;35(2):192-198. 10.12701/yujm.2018.35.2.192.

Antiepileptic and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of red ginseng in an intrahippocampal kainic acid model of temporal lobe epilepsy demonstrated by electroencephalography

  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
  • 2Department of Neurosurgery, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.
  • 3Laboratory Animal Center, Daegu-Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu, Korea.


Chronic inflammation can lower the seizure threshold and have influence on epileptogenesis. The components of red ginseng (RG) have anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of peripherally derived immune cells in resected epileptic tissue suggests that the immune system is a potential target for anti-epileptogenic therapies. The present study used continuous electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of RG in intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Prolonged status epilepticus (SE) was induced in 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice via stereotaxic injection of kainic acid (KA, 150 nL; 1 mg/mL) into the right CA3/dorsal hippocampus. The animals were implanted electrodes and monitored for spontaneous seizures. Following the IHKA injections, one group received treatments of RG (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks (RG group, n=7) while another group received valproic acid (VPA, 30 mg/kg/day) (VPA group, n=7). Laboratory findings and pathological results were assessed at D29 and continuous (24 h/week) EEG monitoring was used to evaluate high-voltage sharp waves on D7, D14, D21, and D28.
At D29, there were no differences between the groups in liver function test but RG group had higher blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that RG reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the brain and EEG analyses showed that it had anticonvulsant effects.
Repeated treatments with RG after IHKA-induced SE decreased immune cell infiltration into the brain and resulted in a marked decrease in electrographic seizures. RG had anticonvulsant effects that were similar to those of VPA without serious side effects.


Electroencephalography; High voltage sharp wave; Intrahippocampal kainic acid model; Red ginseng; Temporal lobe epilepsy
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