Knee Surg Relat Res.  2018 Jun;30(2):107-114. 10.5792/ksrr.17.095.

Two-Stage Reimplantation in Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

Affiliations
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.
  • 2Department of Orthopaedics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. afchen@bwh.harvard.edu

Abstract

Two-stage reimplantation is considered the gold standard for the management of periprosthetic joint infection. The first stage involves the removal of the prosthesis, followed by extensive debridement of all nonviable tissues, synovectomy, irrigation, and reaming of the medullary canals. Once the joint has been prepared, antibiotic-impregnated cement beads and/or spacer are inserted. Antibiotic-impregnated spacers are now more commonly used, and an increasing number of orthopaedic surgeons are using articulating spacers if indicated. Antibiotics are then prescribed to the patient based on the sensitivities of the infecting organism. The duration of systemic antibiotic use is decreasing, and short courses of antibiotic therapy have been shown to be as efficacious as prolonged therapy between the first and second stages. The second stage of the procedure involves removal of the antibiotic-impregnated cement beads and/or spacer, repeat irrigation and debridement, and final reconstruction with revision components. While two-stage reimplantation was considered the gold standard in many parts of the world, recent studies have demonstrated that it is associated with a considerable failure rate. This may be due to the lack of accurate diagnostic tools for infection eradication, and future investigation of risk factors for failure of the two-stage reimplantation should be conducted.

Keyword

Knee; Arthroplasty; Infection; Spacer; Antibiotics; Reimplantation

MeSH Terms

Anti-Bacterial Agents
Arthroplasty
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee*
Debridement
Humans
Joints
Knee
Prostheses and Implants
Replantation*
Risk Factors
Surgeons
Anti-Bacterial Agents
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